Skin Cancer - Symptoms
Skin cancer - a malignant tumor that develops from the epithelial layer of the skin and equally affects people of both sexes, often after sixty years.It was noted that in recent years the incidence of skin cancer in the world to grow rapidly.The most frequently given a cancer affects people spend a lot of time in the open air, living in the southern regions and countries, and those with fair skin
Skin cancer - the cause of
Give a definite answer about the causes of skin cancer, doctors stillnow can not.There are factors that contribute to this disease, but that it includes a mechanism for the development of cancer - remains a mystery.As a result of numerous studies and clinical observations it has been proven role in causing skin cancer following etiological factors:
- most often the main cause of skin cancer called ultraviolet radiation and solar radiation.Exposure to ultraviolet radiation does not stop at the skin itself, according to the majority of ignorant
- Exposure to chemical carcinogens, which in large quantities contained in the processed products of various fossil fuels (carbon, oil, coalresin, etc..)
- Exposure to ionizing radiation has been found after the discovery of X-rays (working without protection radiologists hit skin cancer)
- Long-term thermal effects on a certain area of the skin.Cancer Kangri occurs on the skin of the abdomen inhabitants of the northern regions of Nepal and India, to warm the wear on the body of the pots with hot coal
- As a result of the descent of the tumor along the lines of embryonic facial wrinkles has been suggested the possible disembriogeneticheskom origin of skin cancer
precancerous skin may obligate (always turn into cancer) and optional (transformed into cancer is not always, however, have a high degree of risk milignizatsii).
Obligate precancerous skin :
Paget - is often peripapillary breast cancer, which is also (rarely) can affect the skin of genitals and perineum.Treatment only surgical
Bowen's disease - it blyashkoobrazny red-brown hyperkeratosis and acanthosis center gradually grew and giving ulceration, which indicates the transition to the cancer.Treatment cryodestruction or surgical
xeroderma pigmentosum - congenital degeneration of the skin, which is manifested in early childhood hypersensitivity to sunlight.Under the influence of insolation appear spots, there dermatitis, skin atrophy with vasodilatation and foci of hyperkeratosis.Warty growths are transformed into multiple cancer foci
to the Optional precancers include :
- Chronic dermatitis which arise as a result of contact with the preparation of arsenic, chemical carcinogens, etc., And as a result of X-ray irradiation
- Keratoacanthoma and senile dyskeratosis(take the form of brown patches on the back of the hands, neck and face)
- trophic ulcers;scars of syphilis, lupus, burns
- constantly sensitive to mechanical stress and papilloma warts, atheroma
- Cutaneous horn - thick dark brown skin with horny papilla as
chronic dermatitis and actinic dyskeratosis develop into a malignant neoplasm in 5-10% of caseswhereas the rest of the above diseases - very rare.
There are glandular, squamous and basal cell carcinoma
glandular skin cancer develops from the sweat and sebaceous glands, occurs more malignant gives ulcerative infiltrative, endophytic growth with metastasis to regional lymph nodes, can oftengive hematogenous metastases.For radiation exposure insensitive
Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin observed in 10% of cases and most often appear on the edges of venous ulcers, in the scars, chronic and radiation dermatitis.This type of cancer can grow exophytic (a kind of papillomas, warts, cauliflower) and endophytic (the form located in the skin assembly, which later turns into a deep ulcer).When squamous cell carcinoma of the face, in the regional lymph node metastases occur in 2-5% of cases, and more frequently if the skin cancer is located on the scalp, trunk or extremities.Hematogenous metastases occur very rarely.Like other squamous cancers, the tumor is sensitive to radiation treatment.
basal cell carcinoma or basal cell carcinoma observed most frequently (70-75%) and is mainly localized on the face.Initially it looks like a flat plaque, which rapidly ulcerate and proceeds in the form of slowly creeping ulcer surface that is covered with a crust and has a waxy valikopodobny edge pearlescent.Basal cell carcinoma metastases does not, however, in the case of prolonged existence destroys bone, cartilage and underlying fascia, forming extensive tissue defects.The main method of treatment of basal cell carcinoma - beam or cryosurgical (gives the best cosmetic effect).With tumors of the ears, nose cartilage, as well as recurrence, surgical treatment is used
Skin cancer - stage
Stage 0 - the tumor does not affect the deeper layers of the skin and is localized exclusively in the epidermis.At this stage, if treated early prognosis favorable 100%
Step 1 - observed tumor infiltration in the lower layers of the epidermis, it is no more than two centimeters in diameter and metastasizes to the lymph nodes.When properly administered treatment, this stage is a completely curable
Stage 2 - a tumor from two to five centimeters in diameter, grows the entire thickness of the skin, there may be a single lymph node metastasis.For this stage is characterized by a marked loss of the skin as well as pain problem area.With proper treatment, the survival rate is about 50%
Step 3 - tumor reaches more than five centimeters in diameter affects the regional lymph nodes, while not affecting other organs.At this stage begins ulceration observed periodic fever.In carrying out the proper treatment the survival rate is about 30%
Stage 4 - the tumor spreads throughout the body, affects the lungs, liver, ulcers, bleeding constantly, there are signs of intoxication.The survival rate at this stage is less than 20%
prognosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin depends on the timely and proper treatment, the degree of tumor spread.In the case of cancer metastasis to other organs, the five-year survival with adequate treatment is from 28 to 35%.Basal cell carcinoma provides the most favorable prognosis, because this type of cancer almost never metastasizes, and respond well to treatment.Surgical removal of basal cell carcinoma leads to a full recovery, but sometimes for five years from the date of its removal on the body may be a new tumor
Skin cancer - signs
carcinoma .If on the skin appear shiny or pearly bumps or growths;healing, and then drop the ulcer;slightly protruding pink growths;not passing red or irritated skin - is to sound the alarm.Carcinoma can develop in any part of the human body.Increasing the number of moles, their color and size, should also serve as a disturbing factor.Not the best sign of freckles are common, particularly if their appearance is not observed as usual near the nose, and chest or hands
Melanoma .A sign of the tumors can be different shades of one mole, and its rough or jagged edges;if the size is larger than five millimeters in diameter, or if a change in its size;If a birthmark their swollen, lumpy, hurt or itch;if they exhibit release of lymph, blood.
In the case of the first suspicion is necessary as soon as possible to see a doctor becausein the early stages of skin cancer treatment presents no particular difficulties.
Diagnosis of skin cancer does not cause any difficulties and is based on the visual inspection and palpation.Inspection and palpation of regional lymph nodes and the tumor itself is determined by the stage and form of the disease.By its consistency ulcer it has a dense structure is clearly visible through a magnifying glass it valikoobrazny waxy edge.The final diagnosis confirmed by cytology or scraping smears.To choose a method of treatment is carried out microscopic examination, which determines the histological structure of the tumor
Skin Cancer - Treatment
Treatment for skin cancer depends on the general condition of the patient, the type of cancer and the stage of disease.The most common method of treatment is surgical removal of the tumor.Surgical treatment is surgical removal of the tumor and, if necessary (if metastatic lesions) of the regional lymph nodes.After the surgery, in order to avoid a possible relapse, often appointed by chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
chemotherapy (drug treatment), skin cancer is taking various drugs destroy cancer cells or immune-enhancing activity in the fight against this oncology.Basic drugs used to treat skin cancer: 5-fluorouracil, Interferon, Imiquimod, aldesleukin, dacarbazine.
radiotherapy is to irradiate a specific area of the skin with a tumor.This therapy can destroy cancer cells that may not have been removed during the operation.