kidney cancer or renal cell cancer - a cancer most often affects people in the age range from 55 to 60 years.Among all malignancies, the level incidence of the disease is the tenth
causes of kidney cancer
unambiguous answer to the question about the causes of cancer to date, no.There were suggestions that the people involved in the production of aniline dyes (in their production form carcinogens) are at much higher risk of developing the disease.These carcinogens are considered to trigger the development of bladder cancer.High risk include patients with Hippel-Lindau disease, people with acquired cysts, polycystic ohm and horseshoe kidneys.The main factors predisposing the development of kidney cancer include:
- Age and sex.In men, this pathology occurs twice as often, and the incidence is at its maximum in the seventies
- Obesity.As a result, numerous studies have confirmed that the possible development of kidney cancer affects excessive weight
- Smoking.Tobacco smoking is a proven risk factor for the development of malignant tumors.Smokers (both men and women) the risk of kidney cancer compared with nonsmokers increases from 30 to 60%
- Kidney disease.It was observed increased risk of renal cell carcinoma in patients with end-stage renal disease (chronic renal insufficiency)
- Diuretic drugs.Some researchers attribute the appearance of the cancer with the use of diuretic drugs
- Diabetes .It was observed an increase in the incidence of kidney cancer in people with diabetes
- Power.According to most researchers, the use of fruits and vegetables significantly reduces the risk of developing this cancer
Kidney cancer metastasizes lymphogenous and hematogenous route.At the time of diagnosis in every fourth patient detected metastases.The survival rate of these patients is less than one year, and only about ten percent survive two years.In about 30-50% of patients after nephrectomy spent developing metachronous metastases.The prognosis for these patients a bit better, but the five-year survival rate does not exceed nine percent.The most frequent localization of metastases: the brain, adrenal glands, contralateral kidney, liver, lymph nodes, bones, lungs
types of kidney cancer
most common type of malignant neoplasm is renal cell carcinoma or renal cell cancer that affects partkidney called renal parenchyma.
transitional cell cancer of the kidney in most cases, captures part of the kidney called the renal pelvis.
most common form of kidney cancer lesions in children is a tumor of Williams, which affects the entire kidney
Symptoms of kidney cancer
the initial stages of the disease is asymptomatic and discovered accidentally when a computer or an ultrasound examination on the presence of other diseases.As a consequence, the classic triad of symptoms, which is described in patients with renal cell carcinoma (palpable tumors, blood in the urine, pain in the lumbar region), today is extremely rare.
most common symptom observed blood in the urine (hematuria), which appears periodically or continuously and massive bleeding can occur in the form clots.When squeezed, or tumor invasion of surrounding tissues and renal colic having pain in the abdomen and lower back.The presence of acute pain may be caused by a tumor or hemorrhage due to rupture with subsequent formation of retroperitoneal hematoma.The third local symptom of kidney cancer is a palpable tumor (at the time of diagnosis is present in one in six patients).
In the later stages of the disease, the tumor begins to be palpable through the abdominal wall, expanding the subcutaneous veins of the abdomen, there swelling of the legs, men are expanded veins of the spermatic cord (varicocele), there is a venous thrombosis of lower extremities, weakness, loss of appetite,weight loss
Stage 1 - the tumor has not spread beyond the kidney
Stage 2 - tumor remains within the renal fascia, but grows kidney capsule
Stage 3 - tumor metastasizes tolymph nodes renal sinus or invades the inferior vena or renal vein
Stage 4 - tumor has distant metastases or invades adjacent organs (except for the adrenal glands)
diagnosis of kidney cancer
In the case of blood in the urine must be immediately consulting a urologistwho ordered a necessary in these cases, examination (ultrasound urinary organs, urine and blood).Ultrasound (ultrasonography) Kidney is the primary method of examination when a makrogemeturii.Very often, kidney malignancy was found in this study, which is performed on the other disease.Significant shortcomings ultrasound is the dependence of the results on the qualifications of the physician and the lack of visualization in people who are overweight.In identifying the small size (up to three centimeters) tumors also have certain difficulties.In case of suspicion of the presence of a human kidney tumors, shown conducting additional tests.
excretory urography (after intravenous administration of contrast medium is carried out X-ray examination) is used to assess kidney function and diagnose possible tumors.After the appearance of MRI and CT scanners, the value of this research has decreased significantly, as new diagnostic techniques can detect kidney tumor of any size, to establish its prevalence and function of healthy and diseased kidneys.
Prerequisite examination of a patient with suspected cancer of the kidney is a radiography of the chest, pelvis and lungs.In case of suspicion of metastatic bone disease, is shown holding a radionuclide bone scan, which allows to specify the presence of metastatic bone disease.
Differential diagnosis spend with inflammatory infiltrates (abscess, pyelonephritis ), benign tumors (oncocytomas, angaomiolipoma, adenoma), cysts, primary malignant tumors of the kidney (nephroblastoma, lymphoma, sarcoma)
The prevailing method of treatment of this cancer is surgery, which is carried out in all possible cases.The operation involves the removal of a kidney, the surrounding fatty tissue and ureter (radical nephrectomy).Currently developed and successfully used ablative surgery for cancerous lesions of the kidney.They are held in the early stages of tumor development, if it is impossible for any reason, removal of the kidneys.Such surgery involves removing part of the kidney only, and studies show that organ operations differ little from nephrectomy.The only major shortcoming in the conduct of these operations is a high risk of local recurrence of further development.
After radical nephrectomy in patients with stage 1, five-year survival rate is about 75%.In case of defeat vena cava tumor (Stage 2) five-year survival rate is about 45%.If the process was involved kidney Vienna (Stage 2), five-year survival rate is about 55%.With involvement of the surrounding kidney fat (Stage 3) five-year survival rate of about 75%.This defeats the regional lymph nodes (stages 3-4) five year survival rate ranges from 5 to 18%.When tumor invasion of adjacent organs and distant metastasis five-year survival of less than 5%.
chemotherapy (medication) in renal cancer is ineffective.Radiation therapy as an independent method of treatment of this malignancy due to inefficiencies and does not apply, but only used to prevent further progression, reduce pain, prevention and stabilization of pathological fractures.