Liver cancer - developing under the influence of various causes of the structures of the liver malignant tumor that causes disruption of the body and in the absence of proper treatment leads to death of the patient.The total mass of cancer patients, the percentage of liver cancer in recent years gradually increases, primarily due to the increase in morbidity from chronic forms of viral hepatitis.In the chronic form it becomes not every hepatitis (from 5 to 15% of all cases).Men of the oncology sick several times more often
cause of liver cancer
According to the results of numerous studies have found that there is a direct relationship between the development of cancer from chronic hepatitis (usually B, C and D), and asymptomatic carriage of the virushepatitis.Since contracting hepatitis, cancer develops after twenty or more years, after passing the stage of cirrhosis.In the case of a combination of several forms of hepatitis, cancer occurs much faster.At the heart of the de
Chronic alcoholic hepatitis is and how to mandatory outcome - alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver, is the second leading cause of liver cancer.
Not so long ago, scientists have traced the relationship between the development of malignancy with the waste products of Aspergillus (mold) - aflatoxin.Moulds affect wheat, rice, nuts, and also present in the meat of various animals, eating contaminated food.Because aflatoxin is a potent poison, the risk of developing liver cancer in people who eat contaminated foods, increased more than seven times.The most common fungus found in China and Africa.
Such as the swelling of the liver due to parasites develop cholangiocarcinoma, trematodes (flatworms), which penetrate the human body when using them contaminated fish worms.Most often, the disease is found in China, Kazakhstan, Thailand and the coastal regions of Russia.The parasite is located directly in the bile ducts of an infected person, constantly feeds on the blood of the liver and bile, while stressing the bile ducts irritating products of its life activity, which leads to their inflammation.Over time, the inflammation leads to the formation of tumors of the bile ducts
Cancers of the liver
hepatocellular carcinoma .This tumor develops directly from the liver cells.
Cholangiocarcinoma .As described above, the developing of the bile ducts.
addition may occur liver metastasis from the primary tumor of any other organ (lung, colon, breast, prostate and so on.), Having the structure of the original tumor and the ability of the widening, thereby disrupting the function of the liver.Sometimes metastases reach a truly huge (more than ten centimeters), leading to the death of a patient poisoned waste products of the tumor and liver failure (a malfunction of the liver).The most common liver metastases penetrate from malignant tumors of the intestine (due to the specifics of the outflow of blood from this organ)
cancer symptoms liver
Specific symptoms for malignant tumors of the liver is not, so they quite often confused with acute exacerbations of chronic hepatitis or non-specific diseases of the body(cholangitis, cholecystitis, cholelithiasis).Such patients are exposed to prolonged treatment to no avail, and the cancer is often detected at a very late stage.Clinical symptoms are manifested only when the cancer grows to a significant size, which leads to pressure on the surrounding structures
first signs of cancer of the liver , which patients often do not pay attention to: fatigue, causeless weakness, loss of appetite, weight loss, pulling stupidpain in the right upper quadrant, the propensity to diarrhea.Pain may be associated with tumor growth, and an increase in the size of the body in the event of the accession of inflammation or multiple lesions.
With further progression of the disease, impaired hepatic function processing of bile followed by its release in the intestines, leading to jaundice (color of the skin, mucous membranes, the eyes and the mouth is changed until the bright yellow), joined by a constant itching, marked dryness of mucous membranesand the skin is broken chair.Possible fluctuations in body temperature from 37.5 to 39 * C, acquiring over time permanent
Possible complications of cancer of the liver
- Bleeding from the tumor, which in some cases can cause the patient to death
- Suppuration and the disintegration of the tumor (the rejection ofFood, weakness, abdominal pain, rise in body temperature, according to ultrasound signs of suppuration)
- Overlapping tumor larger bile ducts, which prevents the flow of bile and contributes to the development of jaundice, followed by poisoning of the human body products of destruction of bile acids
- Due to the compression of the tumor largevessels located in the abdomen, which create obstacles to the outflow of blood from its organs, and as a result of accumulating abdominal fluid leads to ascites
diagnosis of cancer of the liver
If visual examination of patients suspected of having given a cancer is detectedan increase in the lower edge of the liver, his pain and bulging of the costal arch.In some cases, detectable tumor itself, having the form of a fixed, nodular, dense, large node.
conducted to detect liver tumor study :
- abdominal ultrasound.With the help of ultrasound may be suspected malignant tumors, to determine its structure, dimensions, and the presence of lymph node metastases nearby
- NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance imaging) or a spiral CT (computed tomography) abdomen, conducted with contrast.These studies provide an accurate representation of the size of the tumor, presence of metastases, the opportunities it surgically removed, as well as allow reliably confirmed malignant neoplasms
- puncture of the tumor.It is performed under local anesthesia and is separated from the tumor (thick needle) a small piece of tissue for further histological examination.Needling is performed to confirm the malignant nature of the tumor and determine its exact form
- clinical tests.It carried out a general analysis of urine and blood;to represent the functions of the liver and its reserves (the level of protein, bilirubin, specific enzymes and so on.), takes blood from a vein
- Tumor markers.This type of research in liver cancer may provide a significant clue.Implementation of tumor markers is to detect specific proteins that are produced exclusively by tumor, and measuring their levels have the opportunity to refute or confirm the presence in the body of a tumor.Specific proteins to the liver is an alpha-fetoprotein, which is found in the blood only in early childhood, it is completely absent in adults, and quite significantly elevated in liver cancer
Liver cancer - treatment
Like any other malignancy, liver cancer treated only by surgerybecause only a complete removal of the tumor gives a person hope for a complete cure.Surgeries performed on the liver only in specialized large surgical clinics as a very traumatic and difficult to conduct.When malignant tumors and metastases, liver resection is performed: the tumor is removed the affected lobe of the liver (usually half of it).This intervention is not dangerous, because the liver is prone to rapid regeneration, and after six months can restore their original dimensions.
Radiation therapy and chemotherapy in cancer of the liver is almost never used, since the tumor is not sensitive to any radiation exposure to any of the anticancer drugs used.
In case of impossibility of surgical removal of the tumor (covers both lobes of the liver, multiple, located very close to the blood vessels, very large), restorative treatment is used to relieve the patient's condition and the extension of his life in a given state for a maximum comfort.Treatment consists of intravenous administration of nutrients, nutrition, vitamin therapy, administration of pain medications, etc..
Some major research centers practiced administration of chemotherapy directly to a tumor located near the large vessels.This procedure is carried out to reduce tumor size, while sparing as much as possible the entire body.This can lead to recovery, and in case of impossibility to extend the life of the patient.Without adequate adequate treatment, liver cancer patients always lead to a very rapid death.
as a tonic adjuvant treatment possible use of different concoctions of herbs (sea buckthorn, yarrow, chamomile) and vitamins, which have wound healing and local anti-inflammatory effect.The use of any of choleretic drugs is strictly prohibited, as they bend and so diseased liver.Also during the treatment it may not use the infusion of celandine, hemlock, mushroom and other toxic substances.