Malignant tumors

Prostate cancer

Prostate Cancer

prostate cancer photos Prostate cancer - a malignant neoplasm that develops from the epithelium of the prostate gland.Men given a cancer of all types of cancer is considered to be the most common, and in recent years there is a trend of growth (around 3% annually).According to various researchers, among all the men with cancer, prostate cancer is observed in 10% of patients

Causes Prostate Cancer

reasons that contribute to prostate cancer, to date, has not been fully established.Now deeply studied the molecular mechanisms of the emergence and subsequent development of the disease.It was identified the gene responsible for the familial cases of this cancer, which indicates a certain predisposition to prostate cancer.Besides it confirmed the theory that the human genome contains several sites that suppress the development of prostate cancer, and various changes in their activity leads to the development of the disease.

The development of metastases, as well as the progression of the disease aff

ects some biologically active agents, and growth factors, which are always present in the human body.

prostate cancer may be preceded by various precancerous changes that occur as a result of long flowing inflammatory processes and in the presence of a genetic predisposition

Risk factors for prostate cancer

- Race.Most other ill men blacks, and the disease is detected in them already in the late stages

- One major risk factor is age.It has been observed that the older the man, the cancer risk becomes much higher

- Hereditary predisposition.Relatives of the oncology patients, there is an increased risk of developing this malignancy

- Harmful production, smoking.The development of prostate cancer is strongly influenced by cadmium contained in welding materials, batteries and tobacco smoke

- Malnutrition.It was noted that the most common tumor develops in men who consume a lot of fat

Until recently it was believed that the risk of developing this cancer significantly reduces the operation male sterilization (vasectomy), but these data have not received confirmation.Identifying the causes of prostate cancer is complicated by the fact that about thirty percent of cases, the disease does not manifest itself, and can be detected by chance at the opening of the people who died from entirely different reasons

manifestations of prostate cancer

Most oftenthe early stages of prostate cancer does not manifest itself.Complaints are beginning to emerge in the propagation of malignant tumors and metastases appearance.For prostate cancer is characterized by fairly slow progression, resulting in early disease symptoms are quite small.Symptoms grow for several years.

In the absence of obvious symptoms of prostate cancer, there is a unique manifestation, which allows to suspect the presence of the disease, this increase in blood levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA).Typically, in such instances, the tumor is still very small in size, or are present only precancerous changes.

With the increase in size of the tumor, as well as the germination of the urethra, the triangle or the bladder neck, may experience symptoms of bladder irritation as difficulty urinating, urinary incontinence, frequent urination, trudnosderzhivaemye sudden urge to urinate.It may also present symptoms overlap (obstruction) of the upper urinary tract: symptoms of pain in the lumbar region, the formation of kidney stones, enlarged cavity kidney and ureter.

When metastatic bone pain in the limbs occur due to compression of the spinal cord metastases may experience paralysis and paresthesia.In metastatic lesions of other organs is a breach of their proper functioning.

summarize, we note that all of the symptoms of prostate cancer are not specific enough and are different manifestations of the impaired functioning of affected organs.Therefore, early diagnosis of malignant tumors is very important screening methods of examination of all men older than fifty years and men younger, who have predisposing factors

Symptoms of prostate cancer

adenocarcinoma is the main histological type of cancer of the prostatecancer.Frequently cancer in early stages proceeds with complete absence of symptoms.Followed by the emergence of various urinary disorders: frequent urination (usually at night), blood in urine, incontinence or urinary retention.In some cases, the number of daily urination can be up to twenty times and be accompanied by a strong urge and pain.In the case of tumor invasion of the seminal vesicles have problems with potency.When you reach a large tumor may be pain during bowel movements and constipation.

development and subsequent growth of regional metastases is manifested swelling of the penis, scrotum and lower limbs.When metastasis to bone (femur, lumbar spine and pelvis) having pain in these areas.

When metastatic liver symptoms depends on the size and number of metastases.When single metastases, an increase of liver and dull aching pain in the right side;with multiple metastases developed hepatic failure and jaundice.

When metastatic lung may initially appear the night dry cough, which is the progression of the process becomes very painful, possibly hemoptysis and the appearance of purulent sputum.Enough common symptoms are shortness of breath and chest pain (acute or obtuse)

diagnosis of prostate cancer

Due to the fact that in the early stages of the disease is almost does not manifest itself, the diagnosis of prostate cancer is difficult enough.Digital rectal examination of the prostate is mandatory surveys urologist.During digital examination can be detected compaction prostate, which excludes the presence of a malignant tumor.In addition, use the following survey methods: TRUS (rectal prostate ultrasound sensor), PSA (prostate specific antigen) blood, biopsy of the prostate under ultrasound guidance.In addition, for suspected prostate cancer, shows a mandatory inspection of the area of ​​the lymph nodes, in order to avoid their destruction.

After establishing the final diagnosis to rule out metastasis, conducted MRI and CT of the pelvis, and bone scintigraphy.If you have symptoms pointing to defeat other bodies appointed by the relevant methods of examination

Prostate Cancer Treatment

Currently, there is no any standard tactics of treatment of prostate cancer, as compared different treatments controlled studies have not been performed.Because of this, to select the most appropriate method of treatment of prostate cancer is difficult.Today, when choosing a method of treatment accepted to take into account the age of the men, the risk of complications, the stage of the cancer process, the likelihood of long-term disease-free period, the physician and the patient's wishes

main treatments of prostate cancer

Expectant management .Due to the fact that none of the studies have not been proven the benefits of radical (surgery + radiation + hormonal) treatment of prostate cancer, the method of waiting, which is the absence of any treatment as long as the cancer is localized and not its pronounced growth.Expectant management is most often applied to older men with slow-growing and highly differentiated malignant tumors severe concomitant diseases.While that does not make any treatment, the patient must always be observed at the doctor, he regularly performed ultrasound of the prostate and PSA blood levels are studied.

Radical prostatectomy (surgery) is the primary treatment for prostate cancer.Until recently, this method of treatment among patients and surgeons was very unpopular, because after surgery developed complications such as impotence and incontinence.Who developed the technique of surgery that preserve sexual function and the ability to hold urine.The prognosis after surgical treatment directly depends on the stage of the disease.In the absence of lymph nodes, the survival rate for the past ten years is over eighty percent;with extensive germination of the tumor - less than forty percent.If it affects the lymph nodes, as well as tumor invasion of the seminal vesicles, the prognosis is much worse.In some doubtful cases, after the operation is used hormonal or radiation therapy, but the feasibility and effectiveness of such combinations are still being questioned

Radiotherapy .For the destruction of cancerous tissue using radiation exposure.Radiotherapy violates the structure of the DNA of irradiated cells, they lose their ability to reproduce, grow old and die.As a type of radiation therapy used interstitial radiation therapy (brachytherapy).This treatment consists in implanting the source of radiation directly into the body of the tumor, allowing it not to irradiate the outside and inside.This ensures the exclusion of many side effects of radiotherapy, which develop due to unavoidable radiation nearby healthy tissue.With this method, the level of the five-year survival rate is much higher than after conventional radiotherapy

Cryotherapy .The tumor is destroyed by means of low temperatures.By the results, this method can be compared with radiotherapy.The best performance is achieved with a small tumor volume and a combination of cryo-therapy with hormonal therapy

Hormone therapy .Since prostate cancer is a hormone-dependent tumors, this type of treatment is effective in about 75% of patients with the presence of common tumors.Hormone therapy is used only in case of failure of other treatments.Methods of hormone therapy include: medical or surgical castration, androgen blockade target cells, inhibition of 5-alpha-reductase, maximum androgen blockade.The earlier initiated hormone therapy, the lower rate of complications and higher survival rates.

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