Malignant tumors

Pancreas cancer

Pancreatic cancer

pancreatic cancer photos Pancreatic cancer - a serious oncological disease characterized by the development of the tissues of the pancreas cancer.In its prevalence among all gastrointestinal malignancies, pancreatic cancer occupies fourth place and his proportion of all cancer is 2 to 3%.Most often this tumor is observed in men over fifty years

Causes of pancreatic cancer

exact causes of this cancer are not known, but scientists almost unanimously inclined to the following risk factors that may contribute to the development of the disease:

- Diabetes, chronic pancreatitis

- One of the key roles in the development of cancer of the pancreas plays smoking.It was found that compared to non-smokers, people who are exposed to nicotine, ill twice as often.However, in case of failure of this addiction, the risk of cancer is reduced very quickly

- One of the risk factors is age.There was a marked increase in the incidence in people after sixty years (mostly men)

- an important role in the devel

opment of this oncology plays a hereditary predisposition.In people whose close relatives suffer from pancreatic cancer, the risk of developing the disease is significantly increased

- The risk of cancer increases unhealthy diet, which consists in the use of large amounts of carbohydrates and animal fat.To some extent, this may contribute to the development of tumors and obesity

- Direct contact with the various industrial carcinogens (asbestos, etc.)

- Diseases of the biliary tract.The most common cancer of the head of the pancreas develops in people with cholesterol gallstones

types of pancreatic cancer

Depending on localization, pancreatic cancer is divided into: a cancer of the tail of the pancreas, cancer of the body of pancreatic cancer and pancreatic headcancer.Depending on the type of cells from which the cancer develops, there are several types of tumors: is most common adenocarcinoma (a cancer comprising cells that produce digestive enzymes).Also, cancer may consist of cells that produce hormones (gastrinoma, insulinoma, etc.)

Symptoms of pancreatic cancer

a long time cancer of the pancreas proceeds completely asymptomatic and its manifestations begin already in the late stages of the disease, after the tumor has spreadthe lymph nodes and surrounding tissue.

main symptoms of pancreatic cancer :

- The first sign of cancer of the pancreatic head is a strong sharp pain in the back and / or in the lower abdomen, which tends to decrease when summing up the legs to the abdomen

- unexplained by other causes sharp enoughSlimming

- As a result of compression of the bile duct tumor arises jaundice (yellowing of the mucous membranes, sclera eyes and skin of the body).Often jaundice can be combined with a pronounced pruritus arising from deposits in the skin crystals of bile

- As a result of compression of tumor transition between the stomach and duodenum, vomit

- Frequent urination and pronounced thirst are the early symptoms of diabetes, which is often enoughoccurs in pancreatic cancer

- Diarrhea develops as a result of reduced absorption of fat from food intake and lack of pancreatic enzymes

- Due to the compression of the splenic vein tumor there is a feeling of heaviness in the right hypochondrium.Also, this violation leads to splenomegaly (enlarged spleen)

- When insulinoma (tumor composed of cells producing the hormone insulin) may include the following symptoms: hunger, hand tremors, heart palpitations, severe weakness, loss of consciousness, and sometimes coma.These symptoms occur due to low blood glucose levels.If you have any of these symptoms should immediately call the emergency services and before her arrival to the patient to eat or drink something sweet

- glucagonomas (tumor composed of cells producing the hormone glucagon) has the following symptoms: frequent urination, weight loss, severe thirst;on the skin appears brown-red rash (erythema migrans necrotic), the language acquires a bright orange color and becomes smooth.These symptoms are caused by an increase in blood sugar levels

- When gastrinoma (tumor composed of cells producing the hormone gastrin) there is increased acidity, there is heartburn, stomach ulcers do not heal even after treatment and so on. The presence of these symptoms causes increased blood levels of the hormonegastrin, increasing the production of gastric juice.

Because quite often pancreatic cancer develops in patients with diabetes or chronic pancreatitis - any change in the symptoms of these diseases (have diarrhea / constipation, changes the nature of pain, reduces the effectiveness of the treatment), or an unexpected deterioration of healthPatients can be considered as one of the possible signs of cancer lesions of the pancreas, and requires immediate treatment to the doctor oncologist or gastroenterologist

pancreatic cancer

Stage 1. The tumor is within the pancreas and is small

Stage 2. With the stage 2A tumor spreads to the surrounding organs, but does not affect the lymph nodes.At stage 2B, the tumor can be of any size, in this case extends to the next lymph nodes

Stage 3. At this stage the tumor extends to the large intestine, stomach, spleen, nerves, and major blood vessels

Stage 4. The tumor metastasizes through the lymphatic vessels to otherorgans (liver, lungs, etc.).

In most cases, the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is set already at a late stage of the disease, in the propagation of the tumor outside the prostate, so often unfavorable prognosis: five-year survival from diagnosis and operative treatment is less than 20%.If untreated, the five-year survival rate of less than 2%

diagnosis of pancreatic cancer

In the case of the above symptoms should not delay to see a doctor, who, after the passage of the patient all the necessary surveys conclusively establish the correct diagnosis.For the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer used the following studies:

- First performed abdominal ultrasound.This type of study allows the physician to determine the cause of pain at the top of the abdomen and jaundice.Often these symptoms are observed in the presence of stones in the ducts of the pancreas or the biliary ducts.If during the ultrasound, the pancreas has a tumor, computed tomography shows

- CT (computed tomography) allows a detailed study of any part of the pancreas, and detect the presence of even a small tumor, which may be noticeable on ultrasound.Upon detection of a tumor to determine its type (namely the cells from which it is made) shows a biopsy

- biopsy is the most reliable method of diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.A biopsy of the tumor by several methods: endoscopically (via the mouth entering long flexible tube) or a needle, which is administered under ultrasound guidance through the skin

- A study of the blood for the presence of antigen CA 19-9, which is cancer of the pancreas, usually povyshen

- To diagnose insulinomas examined blood levels of C-peptide, insulin, glucose

- For the diagnosis of gastrinoma is conducted blood tests to determine the levels of gastrin

- To diagnose glucagonomas conducted study of the level of glucagon in the blood

Treatment of pancreatic cancer

Quality treatment of malignancy depends on the stage of progression of the disease and includes the following methods:

- Surgical treatment of cancer of the pancreas, in most cases, involves the removal of the head of the pancreas contained with the tumor of the stomach, duodenum,of the gall bladder and nearby lymph nodes.Such a global removal of parts of different organs caused by a very rapid spread of the cancer to adjacent organs.In the case of pancreatic cancer or large vessels struck gave distant metastases, surgical treatment is ineffective and even dangerous.If inoperable cancer breaks the flow of bile through the bile duct compression, surgery is performed to restore patency of the duct

- A drug treatment (chemotherapy) may be used after surgery as an independent method, or in combination with radiotherapy.Basic drugs: carboplatin, gemcitabine, 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan

- Radiation therapy as an independent method of treatment is almost never used, and serves as a supplement to surgical treatment or chemotherapy.Radiation therapy is to irradiate the tumor and surrounding tissue, which is aimed at the destruction of cancer cells or slow their division.

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