Bowel cancer - a group of cancers localized in the large intestine, in other words in the line, colon, blind, or sigmoid colon.Today, the most widely used colon cancer.In people under forty, bowel cancer is rare, but after the passage of forty threshold, the risk of developing this tumor is increasing every year.The ratio of incidence by sex is almost identical.Despite the fact that over the past twenty years, treatment of colon cancer significantly improved, the overall outlook has not undergone almost no changes, since most people go to the doctor too late, when the cancer has started, and the key to successful treatment of the disease is primarily aEarly diagnosis
Causes of bowel cancer
name the exact causes of this disease, scientists still can not, but they did not cause no doubt is a direct link between the development of malignant tumors and polyps, which are small benign tumors of the mucous membranecolon.
been reliably established that the likelihood of developing
- Present colon polyps
- Blood relatives have colon polyps
- Blood relatives suffer the disease
- If a long period of time (more than ten years) flows Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis
- diagnosed as having familial adenomatous polyposis colon
For reference : polyps - small in size are benign tumors that can form anywhere in the human body, where there ismucosa.Directly in the intestine, they are most frequently localized in the colon.Polyps are divided into two types: on the leg (they resemble a mushroom and quite small) and sessile (they are a bit larger and more flat);it is the latter more prone to malignant transformation.As it is proved that often enough colon cancer develops as a result of degeneration of polyps, detection shown their mandatory removal.If one parent diagnosed with adenomatous polyposis colon likely to develop polyps in a child is 50%
Symptoms of bowel cancer
The early manifestations of bowel cancer include: a feeling of heaviness / bloating in the abdomen, which later turns intopain;loss of appetite and aversion to meat diet;diarrhea alternating with constipation;Rectal discharge of blood are observed;prolonged frustration of a chair (over several weeks);duration of the observed increase in body temperature;the phenomenon of anemia: dizziness, weakness, fatigue.
It was noted that when cancerous lesions of the right of a colon, the disease is the presence of blood in the stool, diarrhea, anemia and symptoms of intoxication.With the defeat of the left of a colon is most common violation of patency of intestine - from the long-term constipation, until the complete obstruction.
Many of the above symptoms can be observed in other non-malignant diseases of the digestive system (irritable bowel syndrome, hemorrhoids and so on.).The earlier will determine the exact diagnosis and appropriate adequate treatment, the more likely the patient has a favorable outcome of the disease
diagnosis of bowel cancer
Timely diagnosis is critical, since colon cancer is characterized by its slow current and its diagnosisin the initial stages it will help in time to begin treatment and eliminate the disease.Diagnosis is based on the following studies:
- palpation.This method gives a fairly good results and is widely used for the diagnosis of lesions of the colon, sigmoid colon, blind intestine and transverse, as well as to evaluate the state of the tumor and identify the location
- Digital examination.This type of research is carried out with suspected colorectal cancer.Using this method in patients with colon cancer determines the absence / presence of metastases.In cancer of the colon with this method the tumor can be diagnosed in 80% of cases.In women, in addition to the study of the rectum to assess the extent of the lesion is performed vaginal examination
- Barium enema (x-ray diagnosis) bowel.This type of survey is the X-ray examination of the intestinal wall after introduction into it with the help of an enema X-ray contrast agent (barium slurry)
- Colonoscopy.This procedure consists in the study area of the intestine, from the anus to a hundred centimeters deep
- Retromanoskopiya.This study is conducted with the help of a special device, which is inserted through the anus into the rectum to a distance of thirty centimeters, and allows the doctor to see the intestinal wall
- MRI, CT scan to determine the localization of the tumor, presence or absence of metastases
- Laboratory testing of fecesoccult blood
Following the discovery in the intestine cancer is assigned chest x-ray, blood tests, ultrasound of the abdomen
treatment of colon cancer
leading treatment for bowel cancer - surgery in which the surgeon removes both the tumor itself,and nearby lymph nodes (to prevent the spread of cancer).
In some cases, small tumors removed by sigmoidoscopy (long flexible tube introduced through the anus into the rectum).However, most require a more extensive intervention in which dissected anterior abdominal wall.Sometimes after removal of the affected bowel surgeon department interconnects formed ends.If you can not connect, it is shown excretion of guts on the anterior abdominal wall.Most often it is only the first stage of the operation in the future, to restore the normal escape routes stool, connect the ends of the intestine.However, ten percent of the patients still have to live with the deduced intestine.
In some cases, the destruction may remain after surgery of cancer cells is carried out chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
Typically, radiation therapy lasts from four to six weeks.This type of therapy is completely painless, but it can cause a variety of side effects that after cessation of treatment gradually pass.Side effects of radiation therapy: fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, loss of hair, little bruising, itching, or redness of the skin.Women may be added the following symptoms: vaginal dryness, hot flashes, and other symptoms characteristic of menopause.
drug therapy (chemotherapy) is performed in cycles, lasting from a few weeks to months.Medications administered either as injections or tablets.Most people during this treatment continue to work, despite the presence of side effects such as constipation or diarrhea, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, decreased resistance to infections, the formation of ulcers in the mouth, decreased alertness, decreased libido, loss of hair.Women drug therapy causes the same specific consequences, as well as radiation therapy.
If cancerous lesions do not spread beyond the bowel, the five-year survival rate is about 99%.When tumor invasion of the bowel wall five-year survival is about 85%.With involvement of regional lymph nodes, the five-year survival rate drops to 60%.With the spread to distant lymph nodes, the five-year survival rate of less than 30%.