Malignant tumors

Throat Cancer

throat cancer

throat cancer photos Cancer of the throat (laryngeal cancer) - a group of malignant tumors that develop from the mucous membranes of the larynx and pharynx.In most cases, these malignant tumors grow in adjacent organs and tissues.The main factors that increase the risk of throat cancer include: alcohol abuse, smoking and age over sixty years.Depending on the location of the tumor , the following types of throat cancer: cancer of the upper (nadskladochnogo) larynx, cancer of the middle part (vocal cords) and throat cancer is lower (podskladochnogo) larynx.The most frequently diagnosed squamous cell cancer of the throat, which mainly develops in smokers

cause of cancer of the throat (larynx)

the ultimate cause of this disease are not known, but according to numerous observations established the following factors that increase the likelihood of tumors:

- throat cancer mostly sick man

- Drinking alcohol and smoking significantly increase the risk of developing this cancer

- At times more likel

y to get sick people over sixty years

- risk group get people who do not pay due attention to oral hygiene

-The risk of developing this disease increases three-fold in the presence of a genetic predisposition

- The group risk include people whose work is directly related to hazardous industries

- People who previously had a malignant tumor in the neck or head

also believed to affect thethe development of this disease may lack in the diet of fruits and vegetables, and eating certain foods in large quantities (salted meat and so on.).Another factor is the specific Epstein-Barr virus, which causes infectious mononucleosis

signs and symptoms of cancer of the throat (larynx)

Symptoms of laryngeal cancer depends on in which part of developing throat cancer.The main features include:

- Hoarseness and pain in the throat, in some cases, there may be a complete loss of voice.Often these symptoms are early manifestations of cancer of the vocal cords, and later signs of cancerous lesions nadskladochnogo podskladochnogo or larynx.If hoarseness is observed more than two weeks, it is imperative to seek medical advice

- The feeling of presence in the throat lump or foreign body

- In case of violation of the proper functioning of the epiglottis, impaired swallowing

- a long time does not stop and is not amenable to treatment of the drycough, blood veins in the sputum, nasal secretions and saliva;increase in cervical lymph nodes

- If a malignancy develops in the lumen of the larynx, swelling prevents the passage of oxygen to the lungs, resulting in difficulty breathing

- Completely lost appetite quickly reduced body weight, there is pain in the ears, deteriorating hearing

Intensitythe symptoms depend on the location of the tumor.If the tumor is localized in the middle and lower part of the throat, painful swallowing occurs, sore throat, toothache, tooth loss is sometimes observed.If the tumor is located in the upper part of the throat, sore throat, in most cases similar to the one that accompanies a sore throat

Stages of cancer of the throat (larynx)

Stage 0. The tumor has not spread beyond the mucous membrane of the larynx and hasvery small size.Throat cancer stage 0, due to its asymptomatic detected extremely rare.When properly conducted treatment, the five-year survival rate for this stage is from 95 to 100%

Stage 1. At this stage, the tumor grows beyond the mucous membrane of the throat, however, does not apply to the lymph nodes, surrounding tissues and other organs.Five-year survival in stage 1 is about 80%

Stage 2. Tumor extends to the neighboring department of the throat (larynx).Due to the disruption of the vocal cords, there is noisy breathing and a hoarse voice.Five-year survival in stage 2 is less than 70%

Stage 3. The tumor invades the wall of the larynx and leads to disruption of the mobility of the vocal cords.The voice hoarse or absent.Five-year survival in stage 3 cancer of the throat is about 50%

Step 4: The cancer spreads to the lymph nodes and other organs.Five-year survival in stage 4 - less than 25%

diagnosis of cancer of the throat (larynx)

In the case of the above-mentioned symptoms of throat cancer that is present for more than two - three weeks, you should not delay to turn to an ENT - doctor (otolaryngologist), who will appointall necessary examinations and their results to establish the correct diagnosis.Basic diagnostic methods:

- Laryngoscopy.This method involves examination of the larynx by means of an optical instrument or tool laryngoscope mirror.Laryngoscopy allows the doctor to examine the vocal cords, larynx and the cavity to detect a malignant tumor that grows in the lumen.Laryngoscope - a tube that is inserted through the mouth into the throat and at the end of a video camera and light.As a rule, during laryngoscopy performed a biopsy (tissue sampling) raise suspicion of larynx areas for further examination under a microscope

- A biopsy is the most effective diagnostic method of throat cancer.With the help of a doctor can not only establish a definitive diagnosis - cancer of the larynx, but also to determine the histological type of tumor, which is very important for the subsequent appointment of adequate treatment

- CT (computed tomography) to determine the extent of cancer spread to the surrounding tissues, as well as to assesstumor size

After the treatment is performed again conducting diagnostic tests to assess its effectiveness

treatment of cancer of the throat (larynx)

In modern medicine, the treatment of throat cancer is conducted using three basic methods, which include: surgical removal of a malignant neoplasmand surrounding lymph nodes, drug treatment (chemotherapy) and tumor irradiation (radiotherapy).

Surgery (surgical) treatment of laryngeal cancer is to remove the tumor with a part larynx, or completely across the larynx.In cancer of the throat are several types of surgery: complete (total) laryngectomy - the operation, during which removes the entire larynx;Partial (partial) laryngectomy - removes only the affected part of the tumor of the larynx;kordektomiya - during this operation deletes one / both of the vocal cords

chemotherapy in the treatment of throat cancer lesion involves the use of cytotoxic drugs that act oppressively on the tumor cells, thereby slowing down their malignant growth.Formulations can be administered as an intramuscular injection, and intravenous injection (systemic chemotherapy).In some cases, the introduction of drugs is carried out directly into the affected organ (regional chemotherapy).Sometimes, to reduce the size of the tumor, chemotherapy is performed immediately before surgery

radiation therapy is to irradiate the tumor with the help of high-frequency radiation.Often, this type of treatment allows us to achieve the complete destruction of the tumors, or slows down its growth.Radiation therapy is divided into external and internal.External radiation therapy is based in the direction of the rays directly at the tumor.Internal radiation therapy is the introduction of radioactive substances through the catheter into the very malignancy or located nearby tissue.The effectiveness of treatment is greatly increased if the patient before beginning her completely refuse from smoking.

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