August
12
20:06
Malignant tumors

Brain Cancer

Brain Cancer

brain cancer photos Brain Cancer - a large group of rare malignant tumors arising in different shells and structural formations of the brain.The incidence of this cancer is about one and a half percent of the total number of registered cancer.Depending on the location of the affected cells, the tumor is divided into the following types : glioma (tumor growing in the medulla) and neuroma (affected cranial nerves).Also distinguish primary (process develops directly in the brain) and secondary (blood enters the brain tumor cells of other organs affected by cancer) tumor.

Causes of brain cancer not been studied, however, identified some factors that may serve as a trigger for the development of this cancer:

- Genetic diseases: Syndrome Turkot syndrome, Gorlin syndrome Von Hippel-Landau, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, neurofibromatosis (Types 1 and 2) and tuberous sclerosis

- radiotherapy treatment.People who are in a period of his life, for certain reasons (children for leukemia and so on.) Undergo radiati

on exposure of the head, are at increased risk of developing malignant brain tumors

- By the probable cause of the development of this cancer include the impactSome viruses, mobile phones and power lines, but science is not proven

- The cause secondary brain cancer in 100% of cases is the presence of a primary tumor in some other parts of the body

- Head injuries, smoking, work in hazardous conditions (chemical/ oil industry)

Symptoms and signs of brain cancer

Quite often, some brain tumors are asymptomatic and are discovered only at autopsy after death.By itself, the symptoms of brain tumors not specific and diverse.Symptoms of brain cancer may be focal (localized tumor in certain parts of the brain) and cerebral (process extends to the whole brain).Both primary and secondary cancer is characterized by similar symptoms, which manifests itself as a result of the pressure of malignant tumors in the brain

main symptoms of brain cancer :

- Headache.It is the most common and early feature of the disease (occurs in approximately 50% of patients).Headaches in cancerous lesions of the brain are strong enough permanent and aggravated by sneezing, coughing or tilt your head.These pains do not pass after taking pain medications and cardiovascular drugs.The most commonly headache intensifies in the morning

- Vertigo.In cancer of the brain dizzy never depend, in what position is the human body.It is a consequence of increased intracranial and liquor pressure or changes in the vestibular apparatus (for tumors of the cerebellum, pons and so forth.)

- Nausea and vomiting (not dependent on food intake)

- weakness, drowsiness

- hearing and visual impairment.These disorders occur due to entrapment of visual / auditory nerves or increased intracranial pressure

- If the tumor affects the speech center, observed speech disorders

- Memory disorders

- Confusion.The patient does not know their loved ones, forget the name of the objects

- Shortness of movements (often unilateral)

- Psychiatric disorders: apathy, lack of initiative, general lethargy

- Hallucinations.More often than not carry any semantic load and appear as strong odors, monotonous sounds or flashes of light

- horizontal nystagmus ("Run pupil»)

- sensory disturbances, paralysis

- Epileptic seizures.There are no more than 10% of the patients

symptoms associated with the location of the tumor :

- brain stem .Loss of coordination in space, unsteady gait, double vision, partial paralysis of the facial muscles, difficulty swallowing and speech

- cerebellum .Nystagmus (involuntary eye movement flickering), vomiting, stiff neck, raskoordinatsiya movements during speech articulation and walking

- temporal lobe of the cerebral brain .Memory impairment, speech difficulties, anxiety, hallucinations, fainting

- occipital lobe of the brain .Loss of vision in one eye

- parietal lobe brain .The difficulty in understanding words and speech problems, difficulty in coordination, partial paralysis

- frontal brain share .The changes affect the intellect and personality, lose coordination movement, there may be difficulty in speech and loss of smell

Because of the similarity of symptoms with a variety of neurological disorders, timely diagnosis of brain cancer is difficult enough.If you suspect the presence of malignancy in brain structures shown in MRI (magnetic - resonance imaging) and / or CT (computed tomography) with contrast enhancement.To determine the histologic type of brain cancer, is shown holding a fine-needle biopsy or stereotactic

treatment of brain cancer

Due to the complexity of treatment of malignant tumors of the brain, for each patient develop an individual plan of remedial measures.Based on the condition of the patient, histological type, location and size of the tumor, as a primary treatment elected surgical removal of the tumor and / or chemotherapy and radiation therapy.To improve the quality of life and reducing the clinical manifestations of symptomatic treatment

Surgical treatments of brain cancer .When the small size of the tumor shows its complete removal.When the location of tumors in the vital areas, with a deep and wide spread in the brain, surgery is difficult.If you can not completely remove the tumor, if possible reduce it.Methods of surgery: ultrasound aspiration, laser microsurgery, surgery skalpelnaya

Radiation therapy of brain cancer .This type of therapy is used in case of failure of surgery;in combination with chemotherapy for treatment of highly malignant tumors;as an additional method of treatment after a partial or complete surgical removal of the tumor.The most commonly used remote gamma - therapy, at least - stereotactic radiosurgery and brachytherapy

Chemotherapy (drug therapy) brain cancer .Optimal effect is achieved with a combination of chemotherapy with radiotherapy.Basic drugs: carmustine, Temodal, Natunal, Oncovin, lomustine, Carboplatin, Cisplatin.Methods of chemotherapy: intra-arterial infusion (via a catheter shock doses of drugs are introduced into the blood vessels of the brain), a convection method (for several days, the drug is applied to the most brain tumors), intrathecal chemotherapy (medicine is injected into the spinal fluid), interstitial chemotherapy (capsule with a drugplaced in the cavity, which is formed after removal of the tumor).In addition there are standard techniques that are intravenous or intramuscular injection and oral administration (tablet formulations) drugs

Symptomatic treatment depends on symptoms and may consist in receiving corticosteroids, sedatives and antiemetics, NSAIDs (ketones ketonal) and narcotic analgesics (morphine, omnopon).

if treatment was initiated in the early stages of the disease, using a three-stage scheme (surgery + radiotherapy + chemotherapy), the forecast five-year survival rate is about 80%.In other cases, the prognosis is not so favorable, and is less than 25%.

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