Malignant tumors

Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian Cancer

ovarian cancer photos Ovarian cancer - a group of malignant tumors that develop in different tissues inside the ovaries.Among all the gynecological cancers localization, malignant tumor of the ovary long enough in second place, behind only lead to cancer of the cervix.This type of cancer still is called "the silent killer" as the first clinical manifestation of the majority of patients having pathological process after distribution beyond the ovary, and in some cases even beyond the pelvis.About 70% of women with this oncology for the first time go to the doctor when the tumor has already reached 3 or 4 stages.Ovarian cancer most commonly occurs in the periods before and after menopause, the menopause.At risk is the majority of women who gave birth to their first child later, diagnosed with infertility, late onset of menopause.It was noted that the use of oral contraceptives reduces the risk of developing ovarian tumors

Causes Ovarian Cancer

cancerous lesions of the ovary in most cases occurs

in older women and is rarely diagnosed under 40 years.It was noted that some connection with the development of cancer of the female hormonal cancer is less common in women with a large number of pregnancies, and on the other hand is more common in nulliparous or infertile women.Oral contraceptives greatly reduce the risk of ovarian cancer: Women who use these pills for more than five years before reaching the age of thirty, sick 50% less.

Malignant ovarian tumor morphologically divided into epithelial, stromal and germ.The most common epithelial (cancer) tumors of the ovaries.The classification of tumors of the nature of occurrence:

- Primary cancer.There suddenly yourself from unaltered tissue

- secondary cancer.It develops from benign tumors (cysts, Tecom, germ cell tumors)

- metastatic cancer.There is another consequence of the localization of tumor metastasis (lung, breast, etc.).Most researchers assign the greatest value Krukenberg tumor, which researchers believe is the metastasis of breast cancer, stomach or other body in which cancer may develop mucosal

The average age of patients with ovarian cancer is 60 - 63 years.In the development of this malignancy plays an important role environmental, genetic and hormonal factors.Infertility significantly increases the risk of developing this cancer.Hereditary factors as the cause of ovarian cancer is not in doubt

Symptoms of ovarian cancer

The most common symptoms of ovarian cancer are disguised as other common diseases (diseases of the digestive system, bladder, etc.).Quite often, women who develop ovarian tumors, establish a completely different diagnosis, and only after a while determine cancer.

The main sign of the presence of ovarian cancer is to strengthen the symptoms or permanent presence.The most common are the following symptoms:

- Swelling or bloating, a feeling of overeating

- Pain or discomfort in the pelvic region

- Urgent need to urinate

In addition to these symptoms may experience the following symptoms of ovarian cancer:

- Rapid lossor weight gain, appetite loss

- Pain in the lumbar region and the abdomen

- Frequent urination, painful intercourse

- Permanent weakness, increased waist

- Constant indigestion, nausea, flatulence

- Unexpected changes in the naturestools (constipation alternating with diarrhea)

In women with advanced cancer is marked non-specific symptoms: back pain, pain with flatulence, early satiety food, bloating, indigestion.In the later stages of tumor development, the following signs: anemia, pelvic pain, cachexia, abdominal enlargement, swelling of the lower extremities, signs of respiratory and cardio - vascular insufficiency

stages of ovarian cancer

Step 1. Step 1A -The tumor is located within one ovary, while not extending to the surface and without damaging the ovarian capsule.Step 1B - tumors located in both ovaries, thus does not leave on their surface and strikes ovarian capsule.In peritoneal fluid does not contain cancerous cells.Step 1C - Tumor affects one / both ovaries, ovarian capsule is broken in peritoneal fluid observed cancer cells

Stage 2. Stage 2A - The tumor spreads to the uterus, but the cancer cells in the peritoneal fluid observed.Step 2B - Malignant neoplasm spreads in the pelvis, while in the abdomen and fluid in ovarian cancer cells were observed.Step 2C - tumor invade other tissues of the pelvis, in the peritoneal fluid observed cancer cells

Stage 3. Stage 3A - Cancer cells are found outside the pelvis and abdominal peritoneal surfaces.Stage 3B - Tumor affects one / both ovaries, observed on abdominal peritoneal surfaces, its size does not exceed 2 cm. Stage 3C - Tumor size greater than two centimeters, there is metastasis to local lymph nodes

Stage 4. At this stage ovarian cancer, a tumorspread to the uterus adjacent and distant tissues and organs, affects regional lymph nodes

diagnosis of ovarian cancer

diagnosis of malignant tumors of the ovary due to lack of characteristic symptoms in the early stages of the disease is much more difficult.In malignant ovarian tumors no obvious clinical signs, by which they can be distinguished from benign tumors.Particular attention is given to patients at higher risk: women with ovarian function, with the function of impaired fertility and other disorders.Ongoing studies with suspected malignant neoplasms data:

- First performed ultrasonography

- Physical examination of the abdomen helps the doctor to touch identify the presence in it of the tumor and / or liquid.With intravaginal examination the doctor is able to probe any swelling of the ovary or inside the pelvis.However, due to the fact that many women who are in the pre - or postmenopausal, can be present benign ovarian cysts are large enough, any swelling should be investigated further to determine its malignant or benign

- Computed tomography or ultrasound scan.These studies were performed before surgery to determine the extent of tumor spread

If these studies indicated the presence of fluid in the abdominal cavity, a definitive diagnosis occurs after sample analysis (sample is taken to determine the content in the fluid of cancer cells) of the liquid under the microscope.In the absence of abdominal fluid to set the final diagnosis, surgical removal of the tumor (laparotomy) and the subsequent investigation of its tissues

Treatment of ovarian cancer


most frequently performed hysterectomy: excised uterus removed both ovaries, fallopian tubes and abdominal fatty tissue.At the same time, the surgeon should examine the abdominal cavity to detect and follow the elimination of all seen signs of malignant tissue.If signs of cancer are found in the gut, removes the lesion followed by coupling end portions of the bowels.

Hysterectomy - surgical intervention, causing the woman is very great suffering.If it is held for women who have not reached menopause, it appears premature onset, symptoms such as depression, vaginal dryness and skin, "hot flashes."Psychologically, women hard enough to accept the reproductive period ended unexpectedly.Even if a hysterectomy is performed in the period of menopause, the impact on women's self-consciousness is transferred is not much easier.These factors greatly affect the emotional state of women, so it's important to provide them with timely advice and emotional support

Chemotherapy This therapy is performed after surgery to eliminate any possible remaining tiny malignant lesions.In addition to her recourse in the case of an advanced stage of the disease or relapse.After the radical operations shown holding two to four courses of chemotherapy


To date, this type of therapy for the treatment of malignant ovarian tumors almost never used, as numerous studies have shown its low efficiency and on the other hand considerable damage to the human body inas side effects such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, obstruction of the bladder and bowel, etc.It has been proven that radiation therapy is beneficial only in terms of the destruction left behind by surgery tiny clusters of cancer cells, but even in this case, chemotherapy is more effective


With timely adequate treatment of this disease, at 1 stage five-year survival rangesfrom 75 to 100% with 2 steps - from 50 to 70%, with 3 stages of 15 to 35%, at least 4 stages of 20%.The recurrence rate in the 3rd and 4th stages is about 70%.

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