Thyroid Cancer - rarely occurring form of cancer that develops from follicular epithelium and parafollicular thyroid gland.Most often the disease develops in older people (women 4 times more likely).In recent years there has been a gradual increase in disease, mainly due to young adults.Data provided by the World Health Organization indicate that over the past decade, the incidence has doubled.Thyroid cancer can occur at any age completely, and suffer even teenagers and children.The peak incidence occurs in the age span from 40 to 50 years
Causes of thyroid cancer
According to the results of numerous studies found that thyroid cancer (TC) in 80% of cases occur in the background of already existing human goiter, andincidence in endemic goiter district tries to ten times higher.In addition, the development of thyroid cancer may contribute to the following factors increased risk:
- long flowing tumor or inflammation of the mammary gland and genital
- The presence in the
- Genetic predisposition to tumors and dysfunction of endocrine glands
- Local (neck and head) and / or the total ionizing or x-rays, especially during adolescence and childhood
- inherited genetic condition (syndrome Cowden syndrome Gardner, family polyposis)
- thyroid adenoma
-Changes in the hormonal balance in the female body (pregnancy, lactation, menopause)
- Transferred at a young age diseases such as shingles, hemangioma, adenoids, etc.
Symptoms of thyroid cancer
The thyroid gland is located at the front of the neck, almostjust under the skin and muscles.Due to its accessibility to the feeling and inspection, likely early correct diagnosis.Symptoms of thyroid cancer due to the location of the body and the surrounding structures.
If malignancy in the thyroid gland does not go beyond the body, the only manifestation of the tumor may be palpable tumor.Most likely, the detected node, depending on the size of the tumor may be flexible or a dense, with limited mobility.As the size of the tumor in a feeling of heaviness and pressure in the neck.However, be aware that such displays may be present in benign tumors of the thyroid gland (goiter, adenoma, etc.), So we can confidently say that the specific grounds on which it is safe to make a diagnosis of thyroid cancer does not exist.
Once a tumor reaches a large enough size and germinating around the neck tissue extends beyond the thyroid gland appear the following symptoms: shortness of breath (sometimes suffocation), shortness of breath, coughing, hoarseness (sometimes total loss), difficulty swallowing food(food gets stuck in the cervical esophagus), swelling of the neck veins.In the case of lesions of the cervical lymph nodes, they become sedentary, dense, increase in size, merge into conglomerates.
late in the course of thyroid cancer is its metastasis to other organs, which also appears appropriate symptoms.If it affects the bones observed pain in the bones.When brain damage appear movement disorders in the extremities, headaches, visual disturbances, speech disorders, nausea, impaired thinking.When liver damage increases overall body temperature, pain in the right upper quadrant, there is fatigue and weakness.
Depending on the type of thyroid cancer, the above symptoms may appear later and develop a completely different speed.When high-grade form of cancer and slow the development of symptoms can last several years.When undifferentiated carcinoma tumor manifests itself very quickly to signs of sprouting its surrounding organs.In some cases, undifferentiated carcinoma is accompanied by symptoms of inflammation (swelling and redness of the skin, fever, inflammatory changes in the blood) and intoxication
histological types of thyroid cancer
Papillary cancer cancer (75%cases).The most common malignant tumor progresses slowly, which affects only the cervical area without going beyond it.Cancer cells metastasize lymphogenous perhaps their penetration in the cervical lymph nodes
follicular cancer, prostate (15%).This type of cancer is more aggressive than papillary cancer.Metastasis occurs hematogenically, most often affects the lungs
Medullary cancer of the prostate (7-8% of cases).Even more aggressive than the previous two species.Capable of metastasis even in the earliest stages.When this cancer five-year survival from 70 to 80% ten-year survival rate from 60 to 70%, with less than twenty years, 50% of patients
Anaplastic cancer cancer (less than 5%).The most rapidly growing malignant tumor that does not respond to the treatment.Anaplastic cancer metastasizes very quickly, affecting the surrounding tissues and organs, which is further worsens the prognosis of life.For this type of tumor is characteristic lesion of large vessels and larynx
very rare type of thyroid cancer: sarcoma, lymphoma, squamous cell carcinoma
Patients who have been diagnosed with nodular goiter should be under special attention, as the clinical picture of the crop may be thyroid cancer.The first doctor draws attention to signs that can increase the likelihood that the crop is a cancer of age (less than 20 and over 70 years old), male gender, irradiation of the head and neck in the history of the medullary cancer relatives solid dense consistency nodethe rapid growth of nodular goiter, hoarseness and hoarseness, cervical lymphadenopathy, nodal tumor is hardly shifted, dyspnea
diagnosis of thyroid cancer
In most cases of thyroid cancer diagnosed during routine medical examination.If you find a node or seal in the gland shows an ultrasound or CT scan, which allows accurately assess the condition of the prostate.In case of suspicion of malignancy or seal assembly, shown conducting thyroid biopsy, in which conducted the study of tissue cancer.In addition, blood tests are carried out on embryonic tumor antigen, determine the level of calcitonin, thyroglobulin determination.Before the treatment of thyroid cancer, the following tests: ultrasound of the thyroid gland with radioactive iodine scan, computed tomography of the liver, chest radiograph
Treatment of thyroid cancer
Treatment of the disease is assigned exclusively for each individual case.The chosen strategy depends on the histological type of tumor, its extent and aggressiveness of the patient's age and other factors.
Surgery (radical) treatment of thyroid cancer is partial or complete removal of the thyroid gland, cervical lymph nodes and neck tissue on one / both sides.In the case of radical surgical intervention in childhood to avoid potential endocrine disruption in the future, a small part of the thyroid gland unaffected department left.As an adjunct to surgery shows the assignment of treatment with radioactive iodine, which destroys the metastases of thyroid cancer.The most effective this therapy has proved metastases to the lungs, where they observed the complete disappearance.In the case of progressive metastatic disease demonstrates the use of external exposure.Chemotherapy and radiation therapy are used as palliative treatment of advanced cancer.
Following the surgery, in order to avoid metastasis and recurrence, it is necessary to conduct periodic re-examinations, which include thyroid ultrasound, chest X-ray, scintigraphy and so on.