bone cancer - a group of cancers that affect the skeletal system.This oncological disease is probably the most rarely seen form of cancer.Bone tumors are more common in children and adolescents, and rarely have elderly.In adults, bone disease is usually associated with metastases from other tumors (lung, breast, and others.)
most common bone tumor: Sarcoma Ewing, osteosarcoma, chordoma, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma
Sarcoma Ewing It is considered the most aggressive bone tumor that occurs in the age range from 4 to 15 years.Men are more likely to develop this cancer.Ewing's sarcoma in people over thirty years, is found in isolated cases.The main localization of the tumor - the average of the long bones of the legs and arms.Forecast of the three-year survival rate of about 65%, but it is much worse in the case of the spread of cancer cells to other organs and tissues of the human body.
most common primary bone cancer is osteosarcoma , which affects mostly men in the age range from 11 to 24 years of age (older people are very rare).Pediatric Osteosarcoma often develops in areas of intense growth near the knee and shoulder joints, as well as in the long bones of the feet and hands.This type of cancer is very aggressive and can spread to the lungs.Forecast five-year survival rate is about 65%
Chordoma - a rare tumor that develops in people older than thirty years (twice as often in men).Most often it affects the upper and lower parts of the spine
chondrosarcoma by its prevalence in second place (25%) of the total number of recorded malignant bone tumors.These tumors develop from cartilage cells and can grow relatively slowly and be very aggressive.Chondrosarcoma is most common in adults over forty years (mostly men) and tends to spread to the lymph nodes and lungs.The main localization of the tumor is the hip and pelvis.Forecast five-year survival rate for slow-growing tumors is approximately 90%, while aggressive forms not more than 30%
Fibrosarcoma is a very rare form of bone tumor that occurs most often in men between 35 and 55 years (men slightly more).Main localization - the back of the knee and soft tissue legs
Malignant fibrous histiocytoma is the most common soft tissue tumor in the elderly (over 50 years), which affects body fat, tendons, ligaments and muscles.By severity gistotsitoma may be different.Forecast five-year survival rate is 45 to 60%.
also a person can be observed regarding the two common types of bone cancer: multiple myeloma and lymphoma. Multiple myeloma though developed in the bones, but not classified as bone tumors, because they are tumors of the bone marrow, but not bone cells. Lymphoma - cancer usually begins its development in the lymph nodes of the cells of the immune system, but can start to form in bones.
addition of malignant bone tumors can be observed different types of benign tumors: osteoblastoma, osteoma, osteochondroma, hondromiksoidnaya fibroma, enchondroma, osteoblastoklastoma (often transformed into malignant tumor)
Symptoms of bone cancer
The most common symptom of bone tumors is pain.As the disease progresses, symptoms become more severe.In the initial stages of tumor development, the pain often occur at night or during the activity.Being directly dependent on the rate of tumor growth, symptoms can be observed from a few weeks to a few years before people seek medical help.Sometimes the tumor can be felt on the bone, and the surrounding tissues.Such manifestations characteristic of fibrosarcoma and histiocytoma, but can occur with other bone tumors.Due to the development of cancer, bone can weaken, even when minor injuries (or their absence) leads to fractures.In addition, there may be symptoms such as chills, fever, weight loss and night sweats, but they are less common, since there is already after the spread of malignancy in other organs and tissues of the body
Diagnosis of bone cancer
a paramountdiagnostic method is a cancer of bone X-ray examination.The presence of bone tumor on the radiograph gives quite a characteristic pattern in the form of dark spots on the affected areas of bone, or white spots on the areas where as a result of tumor formation of calcium deposits.More sensitive than X-ray examination, a bone scan that can detect even very small lesions, not visible on the radiograph.
If the place of formation of the primary tumor is already known, the secondary cancer biopsy is usually not carried out.If the exact location of the primary lesion has not been set for a final diagnosis indicated mandatory biopsy, which is the study of the suspicious cells under a microscope.In these cases, often resort to the core biopsy is performed under local anesthesia.In some cases, it requires an open biopsy, which is a surgery performed under general anesthesia.
remaining studies are conducted to determine the spread of cancer cells (when the primary tumor), or for the detection of the primary lesion (primary tumor is not localized, and Surveyed secondary tumor).Studies include: MRI scan method, liver ultrasound, CT scan of the chest
Treatment of bone cancer
The choice of tactics of treatment of bone cancer depends primarily on the extent and histological structure of tumors.The main methods of treatment: surgery (radical) intervention, radiotherapy, chemotherapy.These techniques are used both alone and in combination.
most used treatment for bone cancer is surgery, which aims to remove the entire tumor and the adjacent part of a healthy bone.Obtained after the removal of material is subject to scrutiny, the purpose of which is to determine whether there is a tumor around the normal bone tissue.If any remaining cancer cells that require further treatment.Not so long ago, the only option for surgical treatment of bone cancer was amputated, but modern methods of treatment have reduced the need for it to a minimum.Today, in most cases, the tumor is removed with normal bone without amputation.Based on the volume of removed bone to restore the damaged area applied bone cement or bone grafting is carried out from the bone bank, or from another location of the body.In case of significant defeats used implants made of metal, which can be extended in the growth of children.
Radiation therapy is most often used for preoperative irradiation.When carrying out its use high total focal dose.The expediency of combination of radiation therapy diomodifitsiruyuschimi effects (hyperbaric oxygenation, turnstile hypoxia, hyperthermia).
chemotherapy for bone cancer is performed before surgery to his relief and reduce tumor size.Also it can be used after surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells.