tongue cancer - malignant neoplasm of language, arising from squamous epithelium tissue.According to statistics, this oncological disease is seven times more common in men, mainly after sixty years.Among all registered tumors of the oral cavity, malignancies language in second place after lip cancer.As the geographical spread, the development of this tumor is observed throughout the world, but most cases of cancer lesions tongue fixed on the Indian subcontinent and Asia Minor
Causes of tongue cancer
occurrence of this malignancy by a variety of chemical, thermal and mechanical stimuli: actioncaustic medications (lapis etc.), smoking burns when eating, injury ruined root sharp edges or teeth, trauma poor quality prostheses.As a result of prolonged exposure to external stimuli there are various changes (ulcers, leukoplakia, etc.), Which are defined as precancerous conditions.When leukoplakia areas of language become painful, thickened, they appear to erosion, cracks and wa
Despite all of the above reasons are numerous, the most important of them is smoking, becauseTobacco smoke contains more than 190 toxic compounds.Carcinogenic substances released during the burning of tobacco, can cause not only cancer of the tongue, but also cancer of the esophagus, larynx, lung and other cancers
cancer symptoms language
In most cases (70%) cancer of the tongue is localized on the sidethe surfaces of the body and only rarely affects the lower plane (about 10%) and root (about 20%) of the language.At the initial stage of malignancy can only be determined histologically as for appearances, she is no different from benign tumors.With further progression of the tumor ulcerated.Ulcerative center is a crater-like recess with dense thickened edges.More recently, completely painless ulcer Bleeding becomes very sharp and painful, its color ranges from whitish - pink to bright red.On 3 and 4 stages, depending on the localization of the tumor, there is a failure of the regional lymph nodes (retropharyngeal, submandibular, chinstraps), there is a disintegration of the primary tumor.Squamous type of cancer, distant metastases are generally not observed.When adenocarcinomas language metastases often affect the lungs, bones and liver.
main symptoms of tongue cancer :
- Have the language ulcers whitish or red
- the language of the present permanent painful area
- Pain when swallowing, persistent sore throat
- not passing numb certain parts of the language
- The presence of unexplained bleeding from the tongue, which is not associated with damage
- Difficulty swallowing saliva and drooling
- The difficulty pronouncing sounds and shortness of breath
- fetid breath
The course of the disease on symptoms dividedan initial, advanced and running stages.Most often, the first visit to a doctor happens when the tumor is already large enough size and observed the decay of the tumor cells.The collapse of the tumor and rotting food debris contribute to the development of purulent inflammation.First, submandibular, and then the cervical lymph nodes are increased, soldered and ulcerate.Patients often die from bleeding, exhaustion, or due to the addition of aspiration pneumonia.
Cancer Diagnosis language in the early stages is based on the clinical manifestations of the neoplasm (warty growths, ulcers, infiltrates).Particular attention is paid to the language defined by palpation painful dense infiltration in the affected area.Facilitate diagnosis characteristic ulceration with tight margins.In advanced stages, the diagnosis of tumors is based on the presence of characteristic clinical picture
Cancer Treatment language
Successful treatment of tongue cancer depends on early diagnosis of cancer.Of great importance is the timely high-quality treatment of precancerous diseases such as non-healing ulcers, and leukoplakia.Treatment of cancer lesion language using three standard methods, which are used for the treatment of malignant tumors are: surgical treatment (through surgery), radiation therapy, drug therapy (chemotherapy)
type of surgery depends on the location and size of the tumoron the degree of spread of cancer cells to nearby organs, the presence / absence of metastasis.If the tumor has not yet spread to nearby organs, it is removed without serious consequences for the patient's future.If the cancer cells grow adjacent organs, surgical treatment becomes quite difficult.Sometimes, during the operation the surgeon has to remove part of the tumor-bearing lower jaw or palate.In cancer of the tongue is removed part responsible for swallowing tissue removal of the larynx is sometimes carried out.In the case of the removal of sufficiently large amounts of tissue to restore used special prostheses
Radiotherapy Radiotherapy is the impact of ionizing radiation on cancer cells.In addition to the positive impact this type of therapy has a very adverse effect on the human body as a whole.For steps 1 and 2 apply contact gamma - therapy for stages 3 and 4 applied remote gamma - therapy
This type of therapy designed to suppress cancer cells with corrosive chemicals that are administered to the patient intravenously.Chemotherapy can be used as an independent method of dealing with cancerous lesions of the language, and used in conjunction with radiation therapy.Side effects of chemotherapy include dysfunction of the nervous system, bladder and kidneys
With timely adequate treatment of tongue cancer, five-year survival prognosis at 1 and 2 stages - about 80%, with 3 and 4 stages - about 35%.