Testicular cancer - malignant lesions of male gonads (testes), which is characterized by the unpredictable nature of the growth and development of cancer cells.Despite the fact that the statistics of cancer testicular cancer diagnosed in less than 2% of patients, due to its extremely aggressive, the disease is the leading cause of death of cancer etiology in men up to 35 years.Malignant tumor arises directly themselves testes and is prone to the spread of limfagennym or hematopoietic pathways in the lungs, liver, bones and brain
Causes of testicular cancer
The exact cause of this type of cancer is not identified, but a correlation with certain risk factorscontributing to its emergence.Despite the presence of a person of one or more of the following factors does not mean that the development of cancer is inevitable.
Risk factors for testicular cancer include:
- increased risk of developing this cancer in men with HIV
- The constitution of the body.The highest risk i
- Race.Among Caucasians individuals risk of developing testicular cancer is 10 times higher than that of African-American males.Extremely low risk in men of Africa and Asia
- Availability of cancerous lesions in the past one of the eggs significantly increases the risk of cancer in other
- invisible form of cancer (in situ) often turns into a true cancer.This state is not accompanied by the presence of symptoms or of the tumor and diagnosed in men in the survey process for infertility, or the results of microscopic examination of testicular cryptorchidism about
- Cryptorchidism (not descended testicle).During fetal development, the testicles develop in the child's abdomen, and the time of his birth, descend into the scrotum.Approximately 3% of the children did not occur and one or both testicles stay in the groin, and not descend into the scrotum.In 15% of men with testicular cancer, cryptorchidism occurs
- Some moles (nevi), located on the face, stomach, chest or back, are associated with an increased risk of the disease
- Professional experience.Increased risk of malignant testicular tumors observed in firefighters, miners, workers of oil, gas and leather industry
- Family history.If the family of a man diagnosed with testicular cancer, his brothers, the risk of this tumor significantly increased
- Age.Most often, this malignancy develops in the age range from 15 to 40 years
to other probable but unconfirmed causes include: early puberty, a sedentary lifestyle, radiation exposure, pesticide poisoning, increased temperature in the scrotum.In addition, the development of testicular cancer explained by the presence of genetic diseases such as Down syndrome and Klinefelter's syndrome
Testicular cancer symptoms
main symptom of testicular cancer is the appearance of the scrotum small tumor growths, with a simultaneous increase in seal tissue and organ.This swelling can be a painless and cause some discomfort.The patient complains of testicular swelling and pain in the scrotum and / or stomach.The scrotum swells and increases in size.As the progression of the tumor is observed shortness of breath, weakness, shortness of breath, pain in the back, a massive increase in the lymph nodes.Also signs of testicular cancer include: decreased sex drive, increase and morbidity of mammary glands, hair growth on the body and face before puberty
diagnosis of testicular cancer
first diagnostic step is palpation of both testicles of the patient.Palpation then subjected to inguinal lymph nodes and then to eliminate the gynecomastia breast exam performed.
The next step is to conduct a diagnosis of transillumination (candling tsitoskopom scrotum).This diagnostic method to distinguish testicular cancer or a benign tumor from a cyst filled with fluid.In addition, it is shown holding biochemical, immunochemical, and urinalysis and blood.
definitive diagnosis made after the results of the biopsy tissue of the affected testicle.Microscopic examination of biopsy allows to predict the rate of cancer development and to identify the type of tumor.To recognize the degree of metastasis is shown holding a CT and MRI, as well as abdominal ultrasound
stages of testicular cancer
Stage 1. The tumor is localized within the organ metastases absent
Stage 2. There is metastasis in the retroperitoneal lymph nodes
Stage3, 4. Observed distant metastases (brain, lungs, bones, liver), affected mediastinal lymph nodes
Treatment of testicular cancer
Today the number recovered from testicular cancer is 95%.So high positive effect is achieved by means of early diagnosis of the disease.Besides this cancer treatment often is much less extended and causes fewer side effects.
Surgical treatment (radical inguinal orchiectomy) is to remove the affected testicle through a surgical incision in the groin.Most men are concerned that the loss of one testicle will result in infertility, and loss of sexual relationships.Their fears were groundless, as a person, even with one healthy testicle does not lose their reproductive function and can have a full sexual life.Optionally, a man may be held prosthetics, which is to establish an artificial testicle in the scrotum.
During the surgery, according to certain indications may be removed some lymph nodes in the abdomen.This type of operation does not affect the reproductive function and does not disturb the process of ejaculation
Radiation therapy in the treatment of testicular cancer involves the use of high-energy rays that reduce the tumor and destroy the cancer cells.This type of therapy is used locally and affects the cancer cells only in the affected areas.However, radiation therapy adversely affects both cancerous and healthy cells completely.The main side effects of radiation therapy depend on the dose.The most common side effects are diarrhea, nausea, loss of appetite, change in color of the skin exposed to radiation in the area.In addition, radiation therapy causes a disturbance of sperm production (sometimes the process is reversed through one - two years)
Chemotherapy is the use of medication anti-cancer drugs that kill cancer cells.In most cases, testicular cancer chemotherapy are used as adjuvant therapy after surgery for destroying possibly remaining cancer cells in the body.Chemotherapy is systemic therapy, in which medicaments are administered directly into the blood stream and affect both cancer and normal cells completely.Side effects of chemotherapy depend mainly on the dose of specific drugs.The main side effects are: general fatigue, hair loss, nausea, shortness of breath, cough, fever, diarrhea, rash on the skin, ulcers in the mouth, dizziness, hearing problems, numbness.Some drugs negatively affect sperm production.Patients with recurrent testicular cancer are treated with extremely high doses of chemotherapy, which kill not only cancer cells but also destroys the bone marrow.This treatment is used only in patients who are bone marrow transplantation.
All the above treatments are often the cause of impotence or long time, but can also lead to infertility.If the patient after treatment plans to have children, you should discuss with your doctor the possibility of sperm preservation through cryopreservation prior to initiation of treatment.This procedure allows a man to have children, if the treatment will cause infertility.