lip cancer - malignant tumor that develops from cells of the surface epithelium, which are located on the border of the red upper and lower lips.This new formation of all cancers occur in 3% of cases, most often in people over sixty years of age (peak incidence after seventy years).On the upper lip cancer accounts for 95 - 98%, respectively of the lower lip cancer occurs in 2 - 5% of patients.Men given a cancer occurs in about ten times more likely than women
lips Cancer - Causes
One of the major risk factors for cancer of the lower lip is smoking.Equally important in the development of this cancer given prolonged exposure to natural agents are: the sharp fluctuations in temperature, solar radiation, wind.For other predisposing factors include: bad habits (alcohol consumption, chewing various mixtures, etc.), Exposure to carcinogenic substances (mercury compounds and arsenic, petroleum distillates, bismuth), frequent mikrotravmirovanie red border (cigarettes, hot food, sharp
By precancerous states include: papilloma, focal dyskeratosis, cracked lips and chronic ulcers, cheilitis, diffuse dyskeratosis, keratookantomy, erythroplakia.
Clinically identify three forms of cancer lips warty, papillary, ulcer (ulcerative infiltrative).According to the structure emit neorogovevayuschy squamous cell carcinoma (5%) and squamous keratinizing cancer (95%).For squamous cell cancer is neorogovevayuschy more malignant course (infiltrative growth and early metastases of regional lymph nodes)
lips Cancer - Symptoms and signs Symptoms
lip cancer is different and is due to morphological type of neoplasm and previous precancerous diseases.In most cases, patients have sealed neoplasm defect or sore on the lower lip, itching, spontaneously begins to flow saliva, difficult meal.Dynamics of clinical manifestations of the disease increases.Seals or ulcers increase in size and spread to the cheek and jaw.Carrying therapeutic measures do not bring the desired result.
In the early stages of cancer around the small erosion or compaction appears valikoobrazny whisk indicating malignancy process.The tumor develops long infiltration of underlying tissue is gradually increasing.Neoplasm covered with a film, the removal of which is very painful.Under the film viewed lumpy growths.
the later stages of cancer process the difference between clinical forms of cancer lesions cleared.Bottom peptic degradation affects the muscular layer of the lips, tumor infiltration captures floor of the mouth, full lips, jaw, cheeks and chin tissue.The destruction of the tissue increases, joins a secondary infection.Lymph nodes that have recently been painless, mobile and compact, as they become immobile metastasis, increase in size and grow nearby tissues.As a result of eating disorders developing severe depletion
lip cancer - stage
Stage 1. The tumor is small, the surface, up to two centimeters in diameter.Regional lymph node metastases no
Step 2 shallow ulcer grows and spreads across the surface of the mucous membrane of the lower lip, without going beyond it.Under the lower jaw defines a single movable lymph nodes
Stage 3 ulcer grows or spreads the thick lips with the lower lip on the cheek, chin, or corner of the mouth.Cervical and submandibular lymph nodes are inactive, indicating that their metastasis
Step 4. Observed extensive disintegrating tumors that grow in the bones of the upper and / or lower jaw.Still affected by metastatic lymph nodes in the neck
lips Cancer - Diagnostics
Diagnosis of the disease begins with a survey of the patient, which involves collecting complaints on his part, labor history and medical history.Cancer diagnosis is based on the lips holding heyloskopii (stomatoskopii) and a visual inspection of the data.Implementation of these diagnostic events allows the physician to determine the depth and nature of the ulcerative process, assess the condition of the oral mucosa, reveal infiltration roller (for stomach tumors farm).To identify areas affected by malignancy used tissue staining with 1% aqueous p-rum toluidine blue (onkokletki turn blue, and precancer are not colored).To determine the actual size of the tumor is performed palpation lips.If you suspect that oncologic process, from the contents of ulcers taking swabs - prints for cytology.If necessary, shown holding a puncture caused suspicion of the regional lymph nodes.Depending on the indication, the possibility of X-ray and ultrasound of the lower jaw lips of the abdomen and neck.
shown holding differential diagnosis of diseases such as cutaneous horn, syphilitic ulcers, tuberculous ulcer, papilloma, hyperkeratosis, cheilitis Manganotti, leukoplakia
lip cancer - treatment
Before the treatment of lip cancer, the patient is mandatory should be abandonedsmoking and to conduct a complete reorganization of the oral cavity.The method of treatment is chosen, taking into account age, presence of comorbidities, clinical form and stage of disease.The methods of treatment of lip cancer include: a method of radiation (radiotherapy), cryogenic method (tumor is exposed to low temperatures), photodynamic therapy, and surgical technique.Optimum results are achieved with a combined treatment.
At 1 stage malignancy often begin treatment with cryogenic method which consists in exposing the tumor with liquid nitrogen.This type of treatment is most effective and closest to the recovery of 100%.Carrying cryotherapy shows people with severe concomitant diseases and the elderly.In addition, this method is applied for the treatment of tumor recurrence.
next cancer treatment is radiation.In case of failure of radiation or cryogenic treatment, using a surgical technique that involves excision and carrying out additional operations or Wanach Crile (to prevent metastasis).In addition, the treatment can be used in photodynamic therapy, which consists of laser irradiation affected the tumor tissue (used only for limited malignancy).
At stage 2 of the disease Initial treatment consists in carrying out X-ray of the primary tumor focus.Then, after two - three weeks, carried out the operation, which aims to issechenie upper cervical fascial - futlyarnoy fiber.
When 3 stages of the disease the primary focus being treated in a special way beam of gamma - a therapeutic setting, after which the tumor is removed with the help of rezetsirovniya lips.In the presence of the regional metastases, the lymph nodes in order to reduce in size before surgery radiation therapy.
With 4 stages of the disease is shown holding a combined treatment: preoperative external beam radiotherapy, wide excision of the tumor, neoadjuvant chemotherapy.Compulsory irradiated regional lymph nodes of the neck and submandibular region.For 4 stages necessarily radiation therapy and chemotherapy.