mouth cancer - a group of malignant tumors that develop in the mucous membranes of the oral cavity.This group of malignant tumors differ from other possible early diagnosis, so you can immediately start appropriate treatment.However, despite this, not all people pay attention to the presence of their primary symptoms of cancer lesions, which eventually leads to late diagnosis and therefore reduces the favorable prognosis of treatment.Cancer of the mouth is seven times more likely to develop in men, usually after the age of sixty years
mouth cancer - causes of
As the data of numerous investigations, in most cases, oral cancer develops in the pathologically altered tissue that forms as a result ofdyskeratosis and different in etiology of inflammatory processes.An important role in the development of precancerous processes play bad habits: chewing betel leaves (the peoples of India), the use of "NASA" (People of Central Asia), alcohol abuse and smoking.In addition, the developm
mouth cancer - symptoms and signs
Cancers of the oral cavity is conventionally divided into three periods: the initial, developed and launched.
in the pathological focus patients observed unusual sensations.Visual inspection of the oral cavity revealed various alterations: superficial ulcers, induration, induration of the mucous membrane, white spots, papillary tumors, and so on. Pain in the initial period of development of malignant tumors observed in 25% of cases, half of these cases associated with diseases of the teeth,sore throat, etc.In the initial period of development are three anatomical form of cancer of the mouth: ulcer, nodular and papillary.
most frequently observed ulcer form of cancer of the mouth, and at one half of patients with ulcers increases rather slowly, and the other on the contrary - very quickly.Conservative treatment often does not reduce the size of the ulcer.
nodosum form of cancer of the mouth appears hardening in the tissues or the appearance of whitish spots coated seal in the mucosa.Seals have clear boundaries and develop much faster than in other anatomical forms.
papillary cancer of the mouth characterized by the development of the mucous membrane of dense outgrowths that are developing rapidly and are often covered by an intact mucosa
During this period, there are numerous symptoms.Exhibits different intensity of agonizing pain (sometimes completely absent), which can be worn as a local character, and give to any area of the head (more often in the temporal area or near to the site of the defeat of the ear).Decomposition products of tumors irritates the mucous membranes, which leads to increased salivation.A typical symptom of cancer of this localization is the presence of bad smell from the mouth, which is formed as a result of the collapse of the infection and swelling.The development of the period identified two anatomical forms: exophytic and endophytic form.Division on anatomical form is used to determine the type of treatment and to clarify the nature of tumor growth
period of neglect
Because cancer of the mouth quickly spreads and destroys surrounding tissue, it belongs to the very malignant and invasive tumors, and it was noted that cancerous lesionsmucosa rear mouth proceeds much more aggressive and malignant, and harder to treat
Cancer language - most often occurs in the root and in the middle third of the lateral surface (about 70%).Much less tumor develops on the lower surface of the tongue (about 7%) and at its tip (about 3%).According to various reports, cancer of the tongue is observed in 20 - 40% of recorded cases
cancer floor of the mouth - is observed in 20% of all cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.Often the second floor of the mouth infiltrated malignant submandibular glands of the lower jaw, tongue or gums
Cancer buccal mucosa - general histology as in the two previous types of cancer.Quite often the buccal mucosa infiltrated by a second skin, lips, or tonsils.Regional metastasis is rare, except for tumors that are localized in the retromolar region
Cancer mucosa sky - characterized by the development on the hard palate tumors originating from the minor salivary glands (adenocarcinoma, tsilindroma).Less frequently may experience mixed tumors (adenomas polymorphic)
Cancer mucosa alveolar edge of the upper and lower jaws - almost always has the structure of squamous cell carcinoma, and manifests itself early enough, becausein the tumor process involved teeth, which can lead to a toothache
Cancer gums - depending on the location can be spread to the mucous membranes of the mouth floor, palate and cheeks.Regional metastasis is diagnosed in 30% of patients
mouth cancer - stage
Stage 1 tumor with a diameter of up to one centimeter beyond the submucosal and mucosal layers does not leave, regional metastasis is not observed.
Stage 2. In stage 2A, the tumor up to two centimeters in diameter, the underlying tissue grows to a depth of one centimeter, regional metastases absent.Phase 2B is characterized by the presence on the affected side of biased regional metastasis.
Stage 3. In stage 3 A tumor can reach three centimeters in diameter, the regional metastases are not detected.Stage 3B is characterized by lesions on the side of a plurality of biased metastases.
Step 4. If there is failure stage 4A whole anatomy, the tumor spreads to the bones of the facial skeleton and the surrounding soft tissue, regional metastases absent.Stage 4B is characterized by tumor lesion of any degree, there are distant metastases or regional nesmeschaemaya
mouth cancer - diagnosis
Diagnostics cancerous lesions of the oral cavity begins with a visual inspection of the mouth, head, neck and palpation of lymph nodes.If necessary, connect to the inspection doctor - an otolaryngologist, who may appoint on the testimony of conducting further investigation on their profile.
inspect the larynx, pharynx and nasal cavity (laryngoscopy, pharyngoscope, nazofaringoskopiya) with a special tool or a mirror which allows to explore in detail the problem areas and, if necessary, to take to study a piece of tissue (biopsy).To assess the patient's general condition and the detection of anemia analyzes of peripheral blood.Biochemical analysis of blood allows the suspect lesion of bone and / or liver.
To identify the affected lung tissue in advanced malignancy shows computed tomography (CT).The introduction of contrast material during CT scan to determine the location, size, shape of the tumor and identify enlarged lymph nodes.
for the diagnosis of distant metastases are exploring the most striking squamous cell bodies.Diagnosis includes a liver ultrasound, functional study of the liver (radioisotope study, biochemical analysis of blood), chest X-ray
mouth cancer - treatment
During the treatment of oral cancer has traditionally used three main methods of treatment, both aloneand in the complex.
Surgical treatment Surgical treatment of tumors of the oropharynx and oral cavity involves the use of different operations in view of the process and location of the tumor.To restore the lost functions performed restoration (reconstructive) surgery.
Patients with a mobile cancer of the oral cavity, the removal of tumors is done without issecheniya bone.If the tumor is limited mobility, it is removed from the part of the jaw.The visible radiographically apparent defeat of the jaws requires more extensive issecheniya bone.
in tumor lesions of the lips, can sometimes be used Micrographic surgical technique that involves the removal of layers of tumors and their subsequent examination under a microscope.Micrographic method allows to preserve healthy tissue lips, while removing the entire tumor.
Quite often when cancerous lesions of the oral cavity tumor spreads to cervical lymph nodes.In case of confirmation, to show their compulsory removal.The volume of surgery depends on the extent and sometimes can be very significant (deleted vessels, nerves and muscles).
Complications and side effects after the removal of lymph nodes are directly related to nerve damage: the omission of the lower lip, hampered raised above head arms, numbness of the ear.These phenomena can be both time and stay forever (in the case of complete removal of the nerve).
In rare cases, when a large malignant tumors of the oropharynx, which lead to shortness of breath, to restore executed dissection of the trachea (tracheostomy) with the introduction of the trachea breathing tube.After removal of tumors tube is removed, and normal breathing is restored.
In some cases, radiation therapy may be priority treatment for cancer of the mouth in patients with small-sized tumors of the oropharynx and oral cavity.In cases where the tumor is of considerable size, radiation therapy is used in conjunction with surgery to eliminate the possible remaining malignant cells.In addition, the ray method is used to eliminate the difficulty in swallowing, stop bleeding and relieve pain.
most often for tumors of the oropharynx and oral cavity used external irradiation rate of five times a week for five - seven weeks.Sometimes the patient is shown holding internal radiation (brachytherapy), which comprises administering to the tumor for a certain time containing radioactive material metal rods.In some cases, it is shown holding both internal and external irradiation.
Side effects of radiation therapy include: weakness, partial loss of taste, hoarseness, sore throat, dry mouth, skin redness, vascular injury and thyroid glands
This type of treatment involves the use of anticancer drugs.It is used to reduce the size of the tumor before surgical treatment or radiation therapy.Sometimes it is shown chemotherapy in combination with surgery or radiation.
common side effects of chemotherapy: bleeding, increased perception to infections, fatigue, sores in the mouth, hair loss, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting.