Cancer of the penis
Cancer of the penis - the growth of malignant cells in the outer shell and / or tissues of the penis (penis).This malignant tumor growth and has a destructive capacity to metastasize.Cancerous lesions of the penis is a rare disease, and cancer occurs in one case per hundred thousand men.Most often, the development of this malignancy are subject to the elderly over sixty years, although there have been cases of cancer before the age of thirty-five years, and even in young children.Unfortunately about 30% of cases of penile cancer is detected in an already advanced stage, when the tumor extends beyond the penis
Cancer of the penis - causes of
for penile cancer promoted by the following contributing factors:
- Chronic inflammation of the foreskinand the glans penis
- Cutaneous horn (developed on the site of a nevus, moles or injury of the penis)
- Phimosis - was detected in 25% of patients with cancerous lesions of the penis after analysis and research
- Human papillomavirus 1816, 11, 6 types
- Sclerosing lichen
- Disease Bowen - seen the emergence on the glans penis red (erythematous) plaques, often being the co-morbidity of other malignancies of internal organs
- erythroplasia Keira - clearly defined areas of redness, locatedon the foreskin and / or glans penis
- Failure to sexual health and personal hygiene
- HIV.About 20% of men suffering from this disease are at risk of developing Kaposi's sarcoma (a very rare type of cancer of the penis)
It has been proven that the surgical removal of an infant foreskin (circumcision) of the head of the penis reduces the risk of this cancer by 70%
penile cancer - symptoms
Initially, the cancer appears as a small-scale modified portion of the skin, which later thickens and grows in size.Penile cancer is often manifested in the form of growths similar to cauliflower, erosions or ulcers that can occur on the glans penis and the skin.Other manifestations of the disease include: pain when urinating, blood in the urine, an increase in the inguinal lymph nodes (accompanied by pain), pain in the modified area, genital rash, discoloration of the penis, discharge with an unpleasant odor.
All these signs are not absolute for cancer of the penis and can be present at various other diseases of the genitourinary system.In the case of at least one of the above symptoms should be as soon as possible to seek medical help.As it is not sad, but most men experience a false shame and go to the doctor to have advanced cancer stage 3 or 4.On these stages joins common symptoms: weight loss, back pain and / or stomach, weakness, enlarged inguinal lymph nodes
Cancer of the penis - the classification
In 95% of all registered cases of penile cancer tumor develops from the squamous cells,what was the name of squamous cell carcinoma.This type of cancer can develop anywhere on the body, but most often occurs on the glans and foreskin.Squamous tumors usually develop very slowly, and their detection in the early stages determines the cure.Varieties of squamous cell carcinoma: carcinoma, verrucous carcinoma, melanoma, basal cell carcinoma
penile cancer - diagnosis
One of the primary diagnostic methods of penile cancer is a biopsy of enlarged inguinal lymph nodes and / or cytology.In the following piece of biopsy subjected to histological examination to determine the form and stage of the disease and to determine indications for optimal treatment.
- Magnetic resonance imaging of the penis
- Ultrasound examination of the penis.This survey allows you to determine the possible spread of the disease in the urethra, tricky and spongy body
- In case of suspicion of metastasis is shown holding a chest radiography and computed tomography of the pelvis and abdomen
Because of the similarity of the primary symptoms of other diseases, is shown holdingdifferential diagnosis of infectious diseases (genital herpes, syphilis, etc.), benign tumors (lipoma, angioma, papilloma), and allergic reactions
Cancer of the penis - treatment
choice of treatment of the cancer determines the stage, extent andmorphological type of cancer.Early stage or precancerous condition is a carcinoma.Timely remedial measures allow both to save directly the body and its proper functioning.The patient is assigned a treatment cream, which is based on an immunomodulatory substance imiquimod or by chemotherapy creams.In addition it can be carried out surgical removal of the affected areas of skin, laser therapy or cryotherapy.For other types of cancerous lesion to treat using traditional triumvirate of cancer treatments.
Wide local excision.This method allows you to keep the body at the same time he is excised tumor lesions with partial seizure of the perimeter of healthy tissue.Conducting a wide local issecheniya not used in basal and warty types of cancer because of frequent recurrence after excision.
circumcision.If cancer is in the foreskin, often enough to cure of circumcision.
Removing the glans penis.This surgery is carried out at a limited location of the tumor within the head of the penis.After removal using skin flap reconstruction performed plastic body.
Removal of lymph nodes.In 45% of patients at the time of treatment to the doctor diagnosed metastatic lymphadenopathy, thereby requiring the mandatory removal of inguinal lymph nodes.
penectomy.When cancerous lesions 3 and 4 stages with a total lesion of the lymphatic system, the only treatment option is the total removal of the penis.After recovery is possible to conduct the reconstruction of plastic body.
Chemotherapy, radiation therapy
In rare cases, surgical treatment is shown instead of chemotherapy or radiation therapy.Radiation therapy can be used both internally (brachytherapy) and external.At steps 1 and 2 in 80% of cases there is complete recovery.3 and stage 4 during radiotherapy enables a large number of relapses (at given stages of a surgical method is preferred).In the case of an inoperable tumor, chemotherapy is used to relieve symptoms.In combination with surgery, chemotherapy, is used to suppress metastases.