gallbladder cancer - a rare cancer of at which the defeat of the gall bladder tumor cells.Gallbladder - bean-shaped organ, is located on the lower surface of the liver and bile for storing (fluid produced in the liver that helps process Zhirina).Of all the tumors of the gall bladder, cancer is the most common, and in about 75% of the cases it is observed with cholecystitis and cholelithiasis.Any reason that led to the formation of gallstones, can lead to the formation of a malignant tumor that develops in most cases in the "Porcelain" (calcified) gallbladder.The most common cancerous lesions of the localization develops after the age of seventy years (women are twice as likely)
gallbladder cancer - causes of
To date, the following are known risk factors that increase the likelihood of developing cancer of the gallbladder:
-Harmful production.Employees of steel and rubber industry more likely to develop this cancer due to exposure to various chemical substances (nitr
- Inflammation and gallstones.85% of patients with malignant tumors of the gallbladder showed signs of chronic inflammation or stones in the body.People with large stones in the gall bladder more likely to develop this cancer than patients who have had a few small stones.Despite this, it is necessary to know that the vast majority of people with gallstones, cancer does not develop ever
- Cysts of the common bile duct.These tumors contain bile and may markedly increase in size, followed by the development of areas of precancerous changes
- Typhoid fever.Despite the fact that the disease today is quite rare in people who have infection produces typhoid salmonella bacteria, the risk of developing cancer of the gall bladder is increased six times
- «porcelain" gallbladder.Patients with severe inflammatory lesions of the gallbladder wall of the body can cover calcium deposits, significantly increases the risk of developing cancer.Such gall bladder is recommended to remove
addition to all the above risk factors for cancer of the gallbladder may cause factors such as obesity, smoking, polyps of the gallbladder, diet (low in fat and high in carbohydrates), malformations pancreatobiliary zone andage (after 70 years)
gallbladder cancer - symptoms
clinical picture of the disease depends on the degree of involvement in the malignant process of adjacent organs, the stage of disease and the degree of compression of tumor normal bile ducts and blood vessels.In the initial stages of the disease clinically tumor almost does not manifest itself.With the growth of cancer and go beyond the organ (gallbladder), you experience the following symptoms:
- have more than 50% of patients have pain in the abdomen, often located in the upper right section
- half of patients with a tumorThis localization of nausea and vomiting
- Also about 50% of patients at the time of cancer diagnosis observed yellowish staining sclera
- As a result of violations of the outflow from the gallbladder bile, the body so significantly increases in size (which can be detected by ultrasoundexamination or inspection of the abdomen)
Other symptoms of gallbladder cancer include: black stools, itchy skin marked increase in the size of the stomach, loss of appetite and weight loss.
It should be noted that these signs and symptoms can also occur when non-neoplastic liver diseases (hepatitis, etc.), And after a preliminary examination of the patient is necessary to conduct a detailed survey
gallbladder cancer - diagnosis
Diagnosis of the disease is based on datalaboratory studies (include duodenal intubation), and on the clinical picture.On palpation the doctor in some cases may determine in gallbladder volume painful dense tumor.In the feces, urine and serum as a result of compression of the bile duct tumors observed characteristic changes cholestatic jaundice.During the ultrasound, in the lumen of the gallbladder is observed tumor volume (can completely fill the bladder).Diagnosing gallbladder cancer in the early stages is difficult because it may be difficult to distinguish the tumor from thickening of its walls, which is caused by chronic or acute cholecystitis.Computed tomography can also define the tumor volume in the gallbladder.As computed tomography and ultrasound allow us to accurately diagnose bladder cancer in 65% of cases.Using magnetic resonance imaging can estimate the stage of disease and the prevalence.With endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography establish the degree of compression of the bile ducts.Angiography reveals a shift of the portal and hepatic tumor vessels.Before surgery an accurate diagnosis can be established no more than 50% of
gallbladder cancer - treatment
only effective treatment for this cancer is surgery.The operation is performed in two ways: 1) Cholecystectomy - with a limited tumor process, in which the tumor does not extend beyond the walls of the body;2) Cholecystectomy liver lobe resection + lymphadenectomy - with common but resectable tumors.
When running inoperable forms to reduce the clinical symptoms and improve the quality of life of the patient, prescribe chemotherapy.
prognosis of gallbladder cancer is very poor, as most of the time diagnosing malignancy had inoperable.Half of the patients had already observed distant metastases.The favorable outlook later in life only in the case of random early detection of tumors during cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis.The median survival after diagnosis is about three months to one year of live approximately 15% of patients.The five-year survival rate after surgery leaves no more than 12%.