nasopharyngeal cancer - a disease in which malignant cells are hit nasal tissue.This malignant tumor is found in people of both sexes and ages, but more often in men fifty to sixty years.There are several types of cancer of this localization, the name defines the type of cancer cancerous cells of the nasopharynx.Most often, this represented a cancer squamous cell carcinoma, which arise from the lining inside the nasopharynx cells.There are the following types of carcinoma: squamous keratinizing carcinoma (applies to type 1), neorogovevayuschy carcinoma: differentiated (applies to type 2) and undifferentiated (applies to type 3), basaloid carcinoma.
nasopharynx can also develop malignant tumors such as Kaposi's lymphoma and melanoma.It is much less common, and methods of treatment differ from treatment of carcinoma
nasopharyngeal cancer - causes
establish the exact cause of cancer of the nasopharynx to date failed.Some experts of the leading risk factors for dietar
nasopharyngeal cancer - symptoms and signs
The main symptom of this cancer is a painful swelling or seal in the upper neck.In addition, the following symptoms may occur: epistaxis, nasal congestion, noise and / or ringing in the ears (tinnitus), hearing loss, headache.
All of these symptoms can also be observed in other diseases of the nasopharynx, so their presence does not necessarily indicate a cancerous lesion.Like other cancers, nasopharyngeal cancer amenable to probation successful treatment for early diagnosis
nasopharyngeal cancer - diagnosis
to detect cancer of the nasopharynx use the following diagnostic methods:
- Visual inspection of the pharynx.With the help of a small mirror mounted on a long handle, to detect pathological changes in the doctor examines the throat, and then palpate the neck for the presence of enlarged lymph nodes
- A study of the nose (rhinoscopy).The nose is introduced rhinoscope (a thin tube with a lens tool and light) for inspection of the nasal cavity.The handset can be assigned a special tool for the selection of the sample (biopsy) for the microscopic analysis
- X-rays of the chest and skull
- Neurological examination.A study of the nerves, spinal cord and brain.Determined walking ability, coordination, level of intelligence work of the senses and muscle strength
- CT with contrast MRI
- Laboratory tests.To diagnose the disease, treatment plan and follow-up of the disease shows the surrender of urine, blood, etc.
- Positron Emission Tomography.This procedure is carried out for the detection of malignant cells and consists of introducing into the vein of a small amount of radioactive glucose
nasopharyngeal cancer - stage
Stage 0. nasopharynx detected abnormal cells that may later become cancerous and adjacent normal tissue hit
Stage 1. At this stage, the tumor is localized exclusively in the nasopharynx
Stage 2. In stage 2A, the cancer spreads to the middle part of the pharynx (tonsils, tongue base, soft palate) and / or nasal cavity.At stage 2B cancer spreads to the lymph nodes of the neck, or one seizes the area surrounding the nasopharynx.Lymph nodes can be increased up to six centimeters in diameter
Stage 3. This stage is divided into:
- the tumor is found in the nasopharynx and spreads on both sides of the neck to the lymph nodes, lymph nodes grow up to six centimeters in diameter
- cancer strikessoft tissue average throat, tonsils, base of language and / or nasal cavity, and cervical lymph nodes
- tumor extends beyond the soft tissues in the area around the throat and on both sides affects the cervical lymph nodes
- the tumor spreads to the adjacent sinuses or the bones andon both sides affects the lymph nodes of the neck
Step 4. 4A stage the cancer spreads beyond the nasopharynx to her cranial nerves;in the area of the bone around the eye or jawbone.In addition, the malignant process involved lymph nodes on both sides of the neck.At stage 4B cancer spreads to the supraclavicular lymph nodes, which are more than six centimeters in diameter.At stage 4C there is distant metastasis to any parts of the body
nasopharyngeal cancer - treatment
Radiation therapy (radiotherapy) is the main method used to treat nasopharyngeal carcinoma.At the same time radiation treatment is given and the lymph nodes of the neck.The principle of radiotherapy is toward the cancer cells of high x-ray radiation, which destroys the malignant cells.Side effect of this method is little damage to healthy tissue surrounding the tumor.
most often in the treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer radiotherapy is used topically, which is carried out using special medical apparatus and is to transfer power to the new formation from different angles.This technique worked well in the treatment of recurrent small tumors of the nasopharynx.
conducting internal radiation therapy involves the introduction of radioactive material directly into the tumor, or in the surrounding area with the help of special metal needles.The patient during the procedure must be under general anesthesia.After several days, the radioactive material removed
Chemotherapy involves killing tumor cells by cytotoxic drugs.When progressive localized stages of cancer, chemotherapy is often administered in combination with radiotherapy
In some cases, after the completion of radiation therapy doctor may prescribe surgical treatment, which will be directed to the removal of all the lymph nodes affected by cancer.In addition, the surgery can be performed on the removal of recurrent tumors that developed in the lymph nodes of the neck.