Tracheal - a group of cancers that develop from the tissues of the wall of the trachea.This type of cancer is rare and is not more than 0.15% of all cancers.Factors provoking the risk of cancer of the trachea include: age (40 to 60 years), gender (men are affected more often), smoking, alcohol abuse, family history of cancer of the trachea, human papilloma virus, chronic inflammation of the oral cavity (caries, stomatitis, gingivitis), the lack of the presence of vitamin A in processed foods, irradiation and radiotherapy, bad production (asbestos, nickel, furniture), the use of too spicy and hot meals, frequent consumption of salted and tinned products
Tracheal - types
Two groups of malignant tumors of the trachea - a primary and secondary.Primary tumors develop directly in the wall of the trachea.The development of secondary tumors caused by ingrowth into the trachea tumors adjacent organs (lungs, bronchi, thyroid, larynx and so forth.).It is much more common secondary tumors o
The clinical course of the tumor of the trachea is divided into benign (slow progressive, non-invasive) or malignant (fast-spreading, with infiltrative growth).Histological cancer of the trachea is divided into the cylinder (adenokistozny cancer), sarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma, hemangioendothelioma, adenoma and carcinoid.Tracheal tumor often metastasizes to other organs (spine, pancreas, lungs, kidneys, thyroid gland) and regional lymph nodes.
Squamous cell cancer of the trachea develops on the rear and side walls of the body.This tumor sledstvie its growth may slow does not manifest itself sufficiently long period of time.Tsilindroma develops in the mucous glands of the trachea, characterized by infiltrative growth, metastasizing and may recur after removal.Because of its slow development, patients with this tumor can live more than five years.
Tracheal - symptoms
main symptoms of cancer of the trachea following:
- Cough, shortness of breath, labored wheezing
- Change in voice, aphonia, hoarseness, hoarseness
- The feeling of tightness of the chest, a sore throat,Blood in the sputum
- difficulty in swallowing (dysphagia), obstruction of food
- Odynophagia (pain when swallowing)
- Loss of appetite, rapid weight loss, weakness
- low-grade fever body
-Reducing the number of erythrocytes, accelerated ESR
- Increasing the cervical lymph nodes
Tracheal - diagnostics
In the case of the above symptoms should not delay to see a doctor.To diagnose a tumor of the trachea perform the following tests: bronchoscopy, computed tomography, blood analysis, magnetic resonance imaging, analysis for tumor markers, tumor biopsy with cytological and histological study, the top tracheoscopy, X-ray of the trachea, mirror laryngoscopy direct laryngoscopy
In most cases, treatment is carried tracheal cancer by combining chemotherapy and radiotherapy.Radical (surgical) treatments include: circular resection, lateral resection and excision.For most surgical interventions are the upper portions of the trachea.To restore the integrity of the organ after resection performed plastic damaged wall of the trachea.
Surgery is the most effective in benign tumors.If for any reason it is impossible to completely remove the tumor, to facilitate breathing of the patient is carried out palliative surgery (traheofissura).
After excision of the tumor indicated radiotherapy, which in combination with surgery improves survival.Chemotherapy (anti-cancer therapy drugs) is usually combined with other treatments.