bone sarcoma (osteosarcoma) - a rare malignancy non-epithelial origin.Oncologists characterize this type of cancer as a very aggressive and always primary (not accompanied by other malignant tumors ).With typical places of localization of bone sarcoma - in the pelvis, humerus bone and the knee, almost never have difficulties to distinguish the normal from malignant neoplasm of the inflammatory process.
bone sarcoma usually occurs in the age range from fourteen to twenty-eight years, more frequently in males.Typically, tumors develop in the elbow and knee bends.There is a direct connection with the peculiarities of the functioning of these parts of the body, or with the age gap is not currently installed.
Depending on the features of histological structure, bone sarcoma is divided into the following types: chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, fibrosarcoma, angiosarcoma, neyrosarkoma.Among children, adolescents and young adults most often found osteosarcoma of the femur
bone sarcoma - Causes
Causes of bone sarcoma finally determined.Exposure to viruses, carcinogens, radiation and harmful chemicals referred to concomitant occurrence of neoplasms factors.Quite often sarcoma develops after any injury, though most researchers are inclined to think that the injury is only the trigger that starts the development of bone sarcoma.
bone sarcoma can occur in the case of a person such as a benign bone disease and Paget's disease, fibrous dysplasia.Because sarcoma of the femur is most common in adolescents and children, one of the possible reasons for its development is considered to be an intense bone growth.As a result of numerous observations, it was found that the disease is more susceptible to the boys tall
bone sarcoma - symptoms
disease in the initial stages is very difficult to be diagnosed due to lack of distinct symptoms.The patient is usually at night can be observed only dull pain in the vicinity of the lesion.Occurrence of pain does not depend on the current position of the body or exercise.As the sarcoma of bone pain symptom significantly enhanced, it becomes impossible to suppress his usual painkillers.On palpation of the affected joint there is a sharp pain.Around the lesion expands venous network.Metastasis is developing rapidly, affecting in some cases, almost the entire body.
Symptoms of bone sarcoma characterized by a triad - the pain, swelling and dysfunction.At first, the pain may occur intermittently and do not have a clear localization.Unlike pain during inflammation, pain in sarcoma alone becomes less intensive, immobilization effect does not.Tumor fixed, dense, without clear boundaries, without fluctuations, painless or slightly painful on palpation.For large volume tumors can be distinguished extended saphenous veins, the temperature at the site of lesion increased.Rapidly growing dysfunction symptoms - joint contractures, muscle atrophy, involuntary admission position in bed.The bones become very brittle and prone to fractures, even with a slight injury or a fall.Ewing's sarcoma, in some cases accompanied by febrile phenomena.
for early diagnosis of bone sarcoma, even in the presence of a small joint swelling and pain slack in it, is necessary to conduct X-ray examination and biopsy.Before final installation of the diagnosis categorically counter holding physiotherapy and anti-inflammatory therapy, as this will only accelerate the growth of the tumor.After the establishment of malignant tumors, performed MRI, CT and intravenous study with the introduction of a contrast agent into the blood
bone sarcoma - treated
Over the last decade, the treatment of bone sarcoma has become much more efficient.It has been widely used ablative surgery.Combined treatment in a local stage leads many patients to recovery.In the case of solitary or isolated metastases in the lungs, do not panic, because both after the surgery and subsequent chemotherapy almost 50% of patients are cured.
Supplement to the radical method of treatment of bone sarcomas is radiotherapy.And it can be carried out as an external exposure and internal (brachytherapy).The principle of brachytherapy is that directly in a malignant tumor is injected radioactive drug that by directional destroys cancer cells.This type of radiation therapy is safe for most healthy cells of the body, since in this case they are exposed to radiation minimum.For example, in the treatment of Ewing's sarcoma, radiotherapy is usually the main treatment.Radiotherapy is often used to destroy possible remaining after non-radical intervention of cancer cells.Besides radiotherapy it is quite effective in suppressing pain symptoms.
Chemotherapy may be an additional or primary treatment for bone sarcoma.Using drugs to minimize further intervention, reduce the tumor before surgery.Also performed after chemotherapy performed surgery to prevent metastasis and destroy individual cancer cells.Chemotherapy as well as radiation therapy, has long series of serious side effects, which are due to the development of this area of treatment every year becomes less.
As with the majority of malignant tumors, bone sarcoma in the probability of a positive outcome increases significantly with early diagnosis and timely and adequate treatment.Prediction of survival in Kaposi sarcoma of bone or cartilage tissue depends on the current stage of the cancer lesion and timely treatment.At stages I and II bone sarcoma five-year survival rate is about 80%.If the sarcoma is already in the final stages, the five-year survival rate is less than 10%.