Sarcoma - non-epithelial malignant tumor that develops from cells of different types of connective tissue: bone (osteosarcoma), embryonic (mezenhimoma), muscle (miosarkoma) and so forth. The morphological features distinguish fibrosarcoma, polymorphonuclear, fusiform and sarcoma cell round.Among the primary malignant tumors secrete tumor nekostnogo origin (adamantinoma, angiosarcoma, chordoma, fibrosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma) and tumors that developed from the bone (malignant giant cell tumor, chondrosarcoma, parostalnaya sarcoma, osteosarcoma).
sarcoma usually occurs in already mature people, twenty-five years have passed age limit.Among all encountered cancers Kaposi takes about 15%.Statistics on the sites of localization of the human body: the legs and arms - 60% of cases, on the trunk - 30%, on the neck and head - 10%
Sarcoma - Causes of
Development sarcoma cause a variety of etiological agents.Based on these experiments it was found that the cancer develops under the influenc
increased attention in the medical practice, assign men whose profession is associated with direct contact with potential carcinogens (asbestos, aniline dyes, radiation exposure, and so forth.) And female smokers.For today clearly established that prolonged contact with the chemical chloride leads to the development of liver angiosarcoma, and the development of soft tissue sarcoma contribute oncogenic viruses.
All tissue sarcomas are classified by cell accessories and histological structure.Soft tissue sarcoma is presented liposarcoma, fibrosarcoma, angiosarcoma, synovial, neurogenic, myogenic (of striated and smooth muscle), sarcomas, and so on. Bone sarcoma, depending on the individual characteristics of the structure represented by a group of cell round sarcomas (lymphosarcoma of bone neyrosarkoma, Ewing's sarcoma), fibrosarcomachondrosarcomas and osteosarcomas.Besides isolated gematosarkom group which includes various embodiments and lymphosarcoma group complicated in structure tissue-cell sarcoma (malignant mezenhimoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma).In total, there are about a hundred independent clinical and morphological variants and clinical entities sarcomas
Sarcoma - symptoms
course and clinical picture of the malignant tumor depend on its localization and the biological characteristics of underlying cells.For the vast majority of sarcomas initial symptom is the appearance of a tumor, which gradually begins to increase in size.When developing bone sarcoma (Ewing's sarcoma, osteosarcoma), the first sign of the disease are not cropped analgesics (in the standard dosage) night pain in the affected area of the bone.With the growth of tumor formation is often in the pathological process involved the neighboring tissues and organs that exercise similar symptoms (in the case of lesions trachea impaired breathing, the propagation of the nerve trunks marked pain along the affected nerve, during germination of tumor blood vessels is shown expanded venous network).Certain types of sarcomas (parostalnaya bone sarcoma, and others.) Differ prohibitively slow growth and symptoms develop over the years.In contrast, other sarcomas (rhabdomyosarcoma, etc.) Are characterized by rapid growth, extensive local spread, and early metastasis, which usually occurs by hematogenous.Some sarcoma (liposarcoma, etc.) Are often primarily a multiple-character, appearing sequentially or simultaneously in different places, which is usually difficult question of their metastasis.
Soft tissue sarcoma tends to spread to surrounding tissues and organs (skin, nerve trunks, blood vessels, bones, etc.).Initial signs of soft tissue sarcoma - the development has not delineated the outlines of a painful tumor.The temperature of the neoplasm does not differ from that of the surrounding tissues.In most cases, soft tissue sarcoma located in the large muscle arrays extremities (shoulder, hip, and others.).Very often sarcoma spreads through the lymphatic and blood ways to distant organs and tissues
sarcoma - diagnosis
sarcoma diagnosis is based on laboratory data and radiological studies and specific manifestations.If patients are children and / or youth ages complain about unreasonable pain in the bones, the doctor must show increased oncological alertness.Each patient with long flowing bone pain, dysfunction or swelling of the joints must be necessarily directed to the X-ray examination, pending the outcome of which is strictly forbidden to carry out any physical therapy procedures, due to the fact that they often only stimulate the growth of tumors.
diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma is carried out using techniques such as computer studies, or simple imaging, radionuclide, ultrasound and angiography.In order to identify tumor carried histological and cytological studies.Before treatment, to determine the structure of the tumors carried her puncture (puncture) a thin needle to extract a fragment of the tumor to determine the cellular composition of tissues
Sarcoma - Treatment
Successful treatment of sarcoma of any type based on timely diagnosis and comprehensive therapeuticapproach.The prevailing method of treatment of low-grade sarcoma is a radical (surgical) intervention, although in some cases it is possible to use chemotherapy or radiotherapy.Treatment of high-grade sarcoma is usually carried out with the help of chemotherapy as a result of more frequent metastasis of this type of malignant neoplasm, which gives rise to a more aggressive treatment.
sarcoma in children is almost always treated with the combination of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and radical surgery.After a clear confirmation that sarcomas in children are very sensitive to chemotherapy, the doctors were able to significantly improve the survival of patients.
Radiotherapy is an essential complement to the radical intervention.To reduce the risk of relapse, when small-sized remote malignancy applied postoperative irradiation.Radiation therapy is applied and after the removal of large tumors, but because of the possible risk of complications, it must be used with extreme caution.
In recent years, soft tissue sarcomas have been widely used chemotherapy.Adjuvant chemotherapy reduces the risk of metastasis and recurrence after radical surgery.The most efficient of drugs today recognized as Adriamycin, which have more than 30% of patients with self-application is remission.
Complex treatment with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy leads to significant improvement in the long-term results of treatment.Forecast five-year survival rates for sarcomas of the limbs and the soft tissue is about 75%, and in sarcomas localized on the body - about 60%.
Prevention sarcoma is to remove human exposure potentially dangerous carcinogens.You should also take into account the fact that the secondary sarcoma of soft tissue and bone may develop after a few years in the area of ionizing radiation on the previously conducted therapy of other cancers.