Breast cancer - the most common in women malignant tumor of the one and / or both breasts, characterized by a rather aggressive growth and propensity to metastasize active.In the vast majority of cases breast cancer strikes women, but rarely can develop in men.The statistics of recent years on the oncological diseases is said that one in eight women suffer from this cancer.
Breast cancer causes
Most researchers believe the disease that today they are able to name the exact causes of breast cancer.Already almost certainly it found that the risk of this extremely dangerous cancer is significantly increased due to the impact of the following risk factors:
- Hereditary predisposition plays, perhaps, one of the leading roles in the possible development of breast cancer.It is already proved that in the case of the nearest blood relatives of the woman (sister, mother) diagnosed with breast cancer, her risk of developing this cancer increases three times.This is explained by the
- Some individual characteristics of the female reproductive system can also cause an increased risk of developing breast cancer.These features include: the absence of lifetime births, pregnancy and lactation;late pregnancy, which came after 30 years;late menopause (usually after 55 years), before the start of the menstrual period (12 years)
- also undeniable risk factor is the so-called "personal history of breast cancer."This concept means that if a woman has previously been diagnosed and subsequently cured by this malignant tumor, the risk of developing a second breast is significantly increased
- increases the risk of this cancer and diseases such as fibroadenoma (emerging from the dense fibrous tissue benign tumorchest) and fibrocystic breast disease (manifested the growth of the mammary gland connective tissue to form in her cysts - cavities with fluid)
- If you receive more than three years after menopause hormonal agents, also increases the risk of breast cancer
- Usecontraceptives (oral contraceptives) increase the risk of this cancer is usually negligible.However, a slightly higher risk in women taking contraceptives regularly after 35 years, as well as taking them continuously for more than ten years
- Ionizing radiation.Radiotherapy (therapeutic irradiation of malignant tumors) and living in areas with high radiation, over the next 20-30 years, significantly increase the risk of breast cancer.Also in this category may include frequent chest X-ray for tuberculosis and / or inflammatory diseases of the lung
- In addition to the development of this cancer can cause such comorbidities as diabetes, obesity, hypertension, hypothyroidism and others.
Duethe fact that most of the above precipitating factors fix is not possible, as well as due to the fact that often breast cancer occurs in women, medical history which does not observe any of the known risk factors, you should try to minimize the risk of this cancer by controllingand struggling with known predisposing factors.
Perhaps one of the most dangerous precancerous lesions considered fibrocystic breast disease.Not so long ago, Russian scientists to deal effectively with these developed precancerous contains natural iodine Mamoklam natural medicines derived from seaweed - kelp.Its main difference from the quality of hormonal drugs is the lack of toxicity and other side effects.This preparation can be used both as a component of complex therapy, and as a separate medication.Mamoklam significantly reduces the painful symptoms of fibrocystic breast and serves high-quality breast cancer prevention.
Breast cancer symptoms
Symptoms of breast cancer can be quite diverse, which directly depends on the level of distribution, size and shape (most common nodal and diffuse forms) cancer.
nodes form characterized by the formation of dense nodule, with a diameter of 0.5 to 5 cm and more (also for this form is characterized by all the signs, which will be listed below).
diffuse form, in turn, is divided into the armored, and rozhistopodobnuyu mastitopodobnuyu (psevdovospalitelnuyu) form.All these forms are extremely aggressive, grow almost lightning speed, do not have clear boundaries, like "raspolzayas" of breast tissue and skin.
Rozhistopodobnaya mastitopodobnaya form and characterized by the presence of inflammatory reaction: skin bright red breast, the breast is painful, body temperature often rises to 39C.It is because of the presence of these symptoms often occur errors in the diagnosis and patients begin to heal from their lack of inflammatory diseases, whose name and given to these forms of breast cancer.
Brigandine form of breast cancer characterized by the proliferation of malignant tumor in the breast form a sort of "peel", which leads to retraction and therefore a reduction in size of the affected breast.
Breast cancer can sometimes manifest in the form of lymph node metastases on the affected side.The tumor while it is impossible to detect, so in this case we speak about so-called "hidden breast cancer."
With minor size breast tumors, any symptoms occurs.In a small-sized breast, the more observant women for the self-assembly can detect the tumor, whereas if the gland is large enough to make it almost impossible.If detected nodule agile, smooth, round, painful when pressed - probably a benign tumor.Then, as signs of malignant breast tumors include: touch node appeared slightly shifted or completely immobile, its size can be quite significant (from three to fifteen centimeters or more), usually painless, has a rough surface and texture dense as stone.
When malignancy skin over the tumor may undergo following distinctive changes: The skin is pulled, going into a kind of wrinkles or folds, there may be a symptom of "lemon peel" (a tumor is present on the local swelling of the skin).In some cases, it may manifest itself directly sprouting new growth surface of the skin, which leads to its bright red color and expansion as a "cauliflower".
If data attributes must always assess the current status of the axillary lymph nodes.If they are painless, mobile and slightly increased - do not worry.But when the nodes are palpated as a dense, large, sometimes merging with each other - it speaks volumes about their defeat metastases.
In some cases, on the side of the tumor may develop swelling of the hands.It is a very bad sign, which indicates that the stage of breast cancer has come a long way, metastases in the axillary lymph nodes infiltrated and blocked the outflow of lymph fluid and blood from the upper limb.
To summarize the above, below, we list the main symptoms of breast cancer:
- Any visually noticeable change in the original contour of the breast: an increase in the size of one breast, retraction or repositioning the nipple, retraction of any portion of the breast
- Anyskin changes in the breast: the emergence in the areola or nipple small sores;yellowing, blueness, or redness of a skin area;shriveling and / or thickening of the limited area of the breast skin ("lemon rind")
- appearance in any part of the gland tight almost stationary node
- Increasing the axillary lymph nodes that palpation can give pain
- When pressed canobserved clear or bloody discharge from the nipple
- Breast cancer symptoms are often copies of other breast diseases.As examples can be called erysipelas (an inflammatory disease of the skin with soreness and redness of the area of the breast) or mastitis (inflammation of the breast, with pain, fever and redness of the breast skin)
In the early stages of breast cancer often occurs completelyasymptomatic, so the detection of the disease at the earliest stages of development, should be regularly visit mammalogy.Also, for the early detection of pathological changes in the breast, all women should regularly use the common practice of self breast.
self-examination should be carried out regularly for early detection of pathological tumors.The more often the breasts are examined, the sooner you will notice changes in the appearance of them.
breast self-examination technique itself is as follows:
- The first step is to evaluate the presence of visual changes.To do this, stand in front of a mirror and using reflection to compare the symmetry of breast size, color of skin, size, color and contours of the teat
- Then you should spend palpation (feeling), which is alternately indenting two hands on eachside downwards both mammary glands.Also, special attention should be paid to the armpits, and more specifically on these areas are in the axillary lymph nodes.
self-examination should be performed at least once a month.In the event of the slightest unexplained changes - retraction of the skin, nodules, tumors, painful, is necessary without delay to consult a qualified physician.
In case of detection of breast cancer, the first priority is to perform mammography (breast x-ray).As an alternative diagnostic method for women to 45 years shows an ultrasound.Mammography accurately determine the presence of minimal changes in breast tissue and in certain radiological signs characterize them as benign or malignant.
The next step is the detection of tumor pathology biopsy, which consists in removing the fine needle a small fragment of tumors followed by its examination under a microscope.Biopsy allows a more reliable estimate of the nature of the tumor, but the most comprehensive answer can be given only after complete removal of the tumor site.
sometimes shows such a study as a ductography.This X-ray image of the breast, in which the duct has been previously entered specific contrast agent.Ductography is commonly used to detect the presence of a benign tumor of the milk ducts (intraductal papilloma), which initially manifests itself bloody discharge from the nipple, after which often degenerates into cancer.
In the case of already confirmed diagnosis or only in cases of suspected breast cancer, study shows the following required: to identify metastatic axillary lymph nodes is carried ultrasound;to identify distant metastasis is performed abdominal ultrasound and chest X-ray.
also for suspected breast cancer shows such a study as a tumor markers, is to study the blood for the presence of specific proteins, which in a healthy body are missing and only produced by the tumor.
Breast cancer stage
After a complete examination and confirm the diagnosis of breast cancer, the doctor identified by the presence of symptoms determine the current stage of breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Stage 0 .Zero stage breast cancer - located in the glandular tissue, or milk ducts, has not spread to the surrounding tissue malignant tumor.Usually the zero stage breast cancer found during the preventive mammography, when symptoms of the disease is still completely absent.In the event of timely adequate treatment, the ten-year survival in stage zero breast cancer is about 98%.
Breast Cancer Stage 1 .The first stage of breast cancer - malignant tumor, no more than two centimeters in diameter, without spreading to surrounding tissue.In the event of timely adequate treatment, the ten-year survival rate in the first stage of breast cancer is about 96%.
Breast Cancer Stage 2 .This stage of breast cancer is divided into 2A and 2B.
Stage 2A defines a tumor diameter of less than two centimeters, which has spread to one to three axillary lymph nodes, or up to five centimeters without spread to axillary lymph nodes.
Stage 2B is defined as a malignant tumor with a diameter of up to five centimeters with the defeat of one to three axillary lymph nodes, or more than five centimeters in diameter with no spread beyond the breast.
In the event of timely adequate treatment, the ten-year survival rate in the second-stage breast cancer is in the range of 75-90%.
Breast Cancer Stage 3 .This step is divided into a breast cancer 3A, 3B, 3C.
Stage 3A defines a tumor diameter of less than five centimeters from the spread to four to nine axillary lymph nodes, and enlarged lymph nodes chest from the cancer process.In the event of timely adequate treatment, the ten-year survival in stage 3A is from 65 to 75%.
Stage 3B means that the malignancy has reached the skin or chest wall.Also in this stage include inflammatory form of breast cancer.In the event of timely adequate treatment, the ten-year survival in stage 3B is 10 to 40%.
Stage 3C is characterized by the spread of cancer to the lymph nodes near the breastbone and the axillary lymph nodes.In the event of timely adequate treatment, the ten-year survival in stage 3C is about 10%.
Breast Cancer Stage 4 .The fourth stage of breast cancer means that the cancer has metastasized (spread) to other organs.In the event of timely adequate treatment, the ten-year survival rate in the fourth-stage breast cancer is less than 10%.
Breast cancer treatment
treatment of breast cancer should begin immediately after diagnosis.Selection of the appropriate method of treatment depends on the type of cancer, its prevalence and the current stage of the disease.The main methods of treatment for breast cancer are: surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy.
Surgical treatment of breast cancer
surgical method, of course, is a staple in the treatment of cancer and involves the removal of the body affected by tumor, as with any other method of treatment achieved only a temporary supporting effect.This method is usually combined with chemotherapy or radiotherapy, which are used after or before surgery.