Lymphoma - a pathological tumor arising from the reticular connective tissue, from which all blood-forming organs and the lymphoid aggregates in the mucous membranes.Therefore, in the contemporary sources this disease was called reticulosarcoma. Cells of this tumor resemble perfectly healthy reticular cells.However, the histochemical analysis, lymphosarcoma tissue, a large number of fibers are argyrophilic absorbing silver.
all types of lymphosarcoma characteristic rapid progression and metastasis in the lymphatic and circulatory systems.One common lymphosarcoma - is retikulosarkomatoze that the clinical picture almost resembles acute leukemia.For the treatment of lymphosarcoma use of chemotherapy and radiation exposure.
To date, the final causes of lymphosarcoma practically not found.These include some of the factors contributing to the development of the pathological process.
Firstly, these are different diseases with congenital and acquired immunode
Secondly, this autoimmune diseases, among which are systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's syndrome and celiac disease.
Third, under the influence of the body with various chemicals and drugs (dioxin, phenytoin and herbicide).
also on the formation of lymphosarcoma may affect chemotherapy, radiation and ionizing radiation.Among the infectious agents in the progression of cancer secrete the Epstein-Barr virus, the T-cell leukemia, and Helicobacter.
Many patients with lymphosarcoma often find abnormalities at the cytogenetic level.It was found that the changes in chromosomes, genes control the formation of light and heavy chains of immunoglobulins, moves to the genes responsible for differentiation and proliferation.It has been proved that such cancer genes can not control the work of healthy B-lymphocytes.
Incidences of lymphosarcoma in the etiology of malignant hematological malignancies account for 15%, which is only slightly inferior to Hodgkin's disease.Basically, this disease has two types of origin: B-cell and T-cell.
Among the histological forms of lymphosarcoma release: nodular, immunoblastic, prolymphocytic, lymphoplasmacytic, lymphocytic and lymphoblastic.
This malignancy does not allocate certain ages.However, there is great lymphosarcoma exposure to men than women.Clinical manifestations of the disease at the first sign of his largely depends on the primary site of tumor.Primarily lesion lymphosarcoma dependent B-cell or T-cell type of the disease.
mediastinal lymphosarcoma, which is a B-cell primary form usually affects women at a young age.This tumor is a long time does not leave the affected their focus and is located in the anterior mediastinum.In this case, symptoms of intoxication are not typical for this type of lymphosarcoma, even with significant amounts of the pathological focus.But sometimes it can occur accompanying compression syndrome, which is formed in the hollow upper vein and is the only attribute that can be set lymphosarcoma.Therefore, the main role in the diagnosis of the disease plays a random identification of tumors on X-ray examination of the lungs.
These early signs of lymphosarcoma is associated viral and inflammatory diseases include general malaise, fever and cough ups.With the progression of the malignant process the person acquires the swelling, there is a characteristic shortness of breath, aggravated by physical activity, as well as varicose veins occur on the chest.In the future, the tumor spreads to the pericardium, lungs, thus affecting nearby tissues.
mediastinal lymphosarcoma can metastasize to the adrenal glands, pleura, kidney, brain and other organs located in the retroperitoneal space.Much less the disease spreads to the lymph nodes, bone marrow and spleen.Therefore, to confirm the diagnosis is an important analysis of the biopsy.Frequent clinical symptoms of this type of lymphosarcoma considered sclerosis, which can be attributed to nodular type.
to one of the most common types of lymphosarcoma include B-cell primary tumor with involvement of the peripheral lymph nodes.The clinical picture is characterized by multiple symptoms, which makes it possible to determine its subsequent development.Basically symptoms manifested all the signs of intoxication and advantageous increase in supraclavicular lymph nodes.They form a conglomerate, becoming a pretty tight on palpation.As a result of the fact that lymphosarcoma can grow into different tissues, are close, it develops a kind of tumor that has a woody and conglomerates fixed density without defined borders.
further tumor invasion may affect the spleen and other extranodal organs (the central nervous system and bone marrow).In some cases, lymphosarcoma this type may block limfootok and compress venous trunks.But with the possible germination of a pathological process in the kidneys, and the squeezing of the ureter, hydronephrosis develops.Such compression of nerve endings and causes tumor invasion in patients with the appearance of severe pain.All of these symptoms, squeezing and germination show far come disease progression that determine poor prognosis in the future.
Symptoms of defeats mesenteric lymph nodes in the B-cell lymphosarcoma primary form is characterized by the appearance of the rapid depletion of the body as a result of profuse diarrhea.This added more signs of the disease ascites, with a characteristic accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity.Then palpation can determine a significant increase in the lymph nodes.And concomitant symptom advocates an increase of the spleen.
Later lymphosarcoma gives metastases to the intestine, which is characterized by its obstruction, and this is a signal to the emergency hospitalization of patients according to indications.If the pathological process is localized to the bowel, this leads to an increased volume of the stomach.This clinical presentation is the result of severe stages of the disease.Thus, the general symptoms in the early stages of the pathological education has no significant expression in forms, so sick and are in no hurry to see a doctor, that in the future and determine the causes of the tumor is already in the late stages of the disease.
When lymph nodes under lymphosarcoma suschestvuet its distinctive feature, which says that these changes are of the highest cancer cure rates achieved by the actions of chemotherapy and radiation exposure.After the acquisition of the lymph nodes of normal size are diarrhea, which normalizes the body weight of the patient.
With the defeat of the spleen primary B-cell lymphosarcoma occurs in the first increase in this body.Then there is heaviness and pain in the left upper quadrant with periodic increases in temperature.For this lymphosarcoma characteristic syndrome of hypersplenism.For a long time can not penetrate into the bone marrow metastases.Therefore, to establish an accurate diagnosis appoint splenectomy.And for it are not unique therapeutic functions, but also diagnostic.In addition, carry out the removal of the spleen size increases with no tendency to recovery.
clinical picture of brain cell lymphoma of the brain has no specific differences from other types of tumors.Symptoms consists of foci of brain and neurological manifestations.It is characterized by the central paresis and paralysis, as well as increased intracranial pressure.In most cases, co-morbidity in the event of a lymphosarcoma, is considered to HIV infection as a result of which this pathology is manifested.
Distribution of T cell tumors in the body is much smaller than the B-cell forms.In general clinical picture of malignant disease such groups essentially have certain differences.However, T-cell lymphosarcoma in its progression is a leader and is developing rapidly, and this worsens the prognosis of the disease.
In very rare cases, lymphosarcoma penetrate the skin, so the affected area are not yet fully understood.Typically, the tumor is localized in the lower layers of the dermis, and then spreads throughout the tissue.It has a tight formation, motionless and did not change its color.When taking a biopsy of the skin, are deep and long non-healing ulcers.
Appointment treatment of lymphosarcoma is reduced to the individualization and depends on the structure of the tumor, its propagation in the tissues and organs may cure, as well as existing comorbidities and age of the patient.
In very rare cases, surgery is used when extranodal lymphosarcoma affects organs such as the gastrointestinal tract.But this treatment is only one component of the overall treatment.
basis of all the treatment process at lymphosarcoma is chemotherapy, which makes it possible not only to achieve clinical remission, and hematologic and attach it in an anti-current.
Application of local radiation therapy paid off in conjunction with drug therapy or palliative irradiation of pathology.Only in the first step shown lymphosarcoma radiotherapy, as an independent method of treatment and then the low-grade, as well as the propagation process in the bone.This type of beam irradiation or surgical excision of the tumor retains absolute remission in many patients up to ten years.
lymphosarcoma in generalized process proceeds rather slowly.
monochemotherapy, which includes cyclophosphamide, Pafentsil, chlorambucil, appointed by elderly patients with low-grade lymphosarcoma, when accompanied by other serious diseases.Appointment splenectomy is used when the primary lesion of the spleen, regardless of morphological type of the disease.Then, a course of chemotherapy.When skin lesions prescribe chemotherapy and prospidina Spirobrominom.
For the third and fourth stages of lymphosarcoma aggressive form of chemotherapy cycles are carried out with further supervisory treatment.A more tumor foci apply the affected local radiation therapy, which is effective for lymphosarcoma pharyngeal ring into the primary form.In order to prevent the generalization of cancer combined exposure to polychemotherapy.
Also, when low-grade disease process to generalized stage lymphosarcoma prescribed program: BATSOP, TSOPP, CSC and others.
results cytostatic treatment of lymphosarcoma largely depend on the timely application of hematologic drugs immunnokorrektiruyuschih funds and antibiotic therapy.
In some cases, positive blood, chemotherapy can be performed on an outpatient basis, which greatly facilitates the process of treatment.This is due to the psychological impact of hematological and oncological hospitals.In addition, after remission, for two years with intervals of three months, anti-treatment is performed before the reception of positive dynamics in the clinical and hematological form.
lymphosarcoma Forecasting largely depends on the stage with a treatment was initiated.After a timely and early diagnosis of the disease, can increase the half the length of remission.During therapy lymphosarcoma with small lesions may be successful in 80-100%.
But the prognosis for disseminated and generalized form of lymphosarcoma - is poor.And often the treatment of this malignant disease is ineffective, with a possible short-term effect.