blastoma - is excessive and abnormal growth of tissue, consisting of deformed cells that have lost their original function and form.Their peculiarity lies in the fact that even after the termination exposure to certain factors that cause the development of neoplasms, they still reproduce.
There are two types of neoplasms - a malignant and benign.They have some differences that suggest that benign neoplasms during its growth pushing the surrounding tissue, but neoplasms malignant etiology had germinate in them, thus destroying and damaging the blood vessels of the hematopoietic system, which later spread abnormal cells throughout the body.Thus, the process of metastasis, which significantly distinguishes benign neoplasms, which is only one percent of all kinds of tumors, malignant forms.
in certain tumors ending "Ohm" from neoplasms is added to the name of the affected tissue.Thus, the formation of various types of neoplasms, for example, Chondroblastoma or chondroma, uterine sarcom
Currently known by many factors that review mechanisms and conditions for the development of neoplasms, however, the exact reasons for theirorigin is not clear.But, nevertheless, thanks to the recent studies of the molecular pathology can exact certainty some.
main reason for the development of neoplasms considered disorders that affect the DNA molecule in the cells of a gene under the influence of various carcinogens, provoking genetic alterations in the form of mutations.Under these conditions, contributing to exposure to carcinogens, reduces the effectiveness of protection against neoplasms, which are carried out at the genetic level, with the anti-oncogenes.There are three groups of harmful substances, physical, chemical, and viral carcinogens.
According to some estimates about 75% of human malignancies are caused by chemical factors of the environment.Generally more than 40% blasts developed from the combustion products of tobacco products;30% is produced by chemical agents that are found in food products and almost 10% - of the compounds used in some production fields.These chemical compounds (more than 1500) have a deleterious effect.Of these, about twenty definitely cause the development of neoplasms in humans.Considered the most dangerous carcinogens, which are divided into several classes: organic and inorganic chemicals.Organic components include those that are released into the atmosphere, for example, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic, as well as amides and amines, mustard, epoxies, urethane and carbon tetrachloride.
Carcinogens inorganic properties may be exogenous, ieenter the body from the external environment (arsenic, cobalt, asbestos, chromates, etc.) and endogenous formed in the body after changes ordinary metabolic products (metabolites of estrogen, amino acids, and bile lipoperoksidnye compounds).
Carcinogens physical nature include: radiation from radioactive substances, X-rays and an overdose of ultraviolet radiation.
Today we have shown that human neoplasms 20% had a viral etiology.Among the most common form caused by a virus, isolated Hodgkin's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal cancer, liver cancer, Burkitt's lymphoma, cervical cancer, and others.
Currently found several oncogenic human viruses that cause the development of many neoplasms: hepatitis B virus, andWith that cause liver cancer;papallomavirusy certain types - is the cause of cervical cancer;Epstein-Barr, herpesvirus eighth type - may develop Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, etc .;virus T-cell leukemia;HIV, which does not transform the genes, but creates all the conditions for the immunodeficiency that causes various types of neoplasms.
This disease is the most common malignancy in women of any age.Over the past fifteen years, according to statistics, the number of reported cases with breast neoplasms increased almost twice.This problem is more common among women living in industrialized large cities than in the countryside.
Actually blastoma breast cancer is not only a disease of the female sex, it can also be found in men.Therefore it is necessary that both the strong half of humanity does not exclude the likelihood of developing the disease, and thus timely to consult specialists.Since it is late diagnosis of disease is the cause of a late start of treatment and poor performance in the results of therapy.
risk factors in the formation of neoplasms of the breast is considered to have a family history of disease, lack of or late delivery, the exclusion of breastfeeding, abstinence, disease of the reproductive system, triggers hormonal changes.
Some studies prove their involvement in breast neoplasms diabetes, hypertension and atherosclerosis.
Typically, blastoma breast is formed by active reproduction of atypical cells and this process is not possible to control.Therefore, delayed treatment, blastoma increases, then grows into the tissue, and other somatic organs, where there is some discomfort.Thereafter, lymph determines limfruzly pathological cells, and blood-borne metastases distributed throughout the body.
Basically blastoma breast grows into the lungs, causing blastoma lung, liver, bone marrow and spinal cord.If it affects all of the body comes quick death due to poisoning of the whole organism and manifestations of pathology.Most often blastoma breast is formed on the background of fibroadenoma and mastitis.
first symptom, which should give cause for referral to a specialist, it is detected by a dense painless education in breast.At the same time there is a change of its forms and shapes, and the skin is retracted and wrinkled surface.Sometimes women appear discomfort and chest pain, nipple discharge of blood, lymph nodes and is expected to increase the part of neoplasms.The nipple becomes dense or swelling.
The main problem of this disease is that not all women undergo annual inspection of mammalogy doctor, but only since the existing suspicions at blastoma breast and chest seals go to the doctor.Therefore, if screened per year, it is possible to prevent the detection of neoplasms in the later stages of development, and this will increase the chances for full recovery.
To identify blastoma breast cancer mammography is used.But preliminary diagnosis More prescribe ultrasound and biopsy of the breast, for the study of a small number of cancer on histology.If you suspect a metastasis are bone scintigraphy, abdominal ultrasound, chest X-rays, CT scans and, if necessary, other methods of examination.
neoplasms of the breast is treated with chemotherapy, radiation exposure and hormones.An integrated approach to treatment depends on the location of the tumor and its size, age and condition of patients with metastases, and hormonal levels.With early diagnosis neoplasms can achieve absolute recovery of the patient, but with the following steps to achieve this much more difficult.Therefore, in severe forms of the disease, doctors sometimes use a palliative treatment that facilitates and extends for some time the lives of patients.
It scantily, a rare and usually fatal disease.This characteristic feature of cancer patients with neoplasms of the brain is the neglect of diseases, when the odds of a favorable outcome is far less than they could be.
neoplasms of the brain - it growths that develop inside the skull.They also are both benign and malignant character, ie,considered brain cancer.If the tumor originated from the meninges, blood vessels that surround it, the nerves, the brain is the primary blastoma, which has all the positive perspectives in the treatment of surgically.But if it sprouted from other authorities, it is secondary and can be treated much more difficult.
brain neoplasms are classified according to their origin, for malignancy, location, as well as the tissue from which they were formed.Basically this disease, though are rare anomalies, still have many kinds.More than 25% of all primary brain neoplasms forms constitute meningiomas, which are benign intracranial formations, but hemangioblastomas that develop from the stem cells are considered a rare disease.Nearly all brain neoplasms in 60% of malignant etiology are gliomas and rare species include sarcoma estezioneyroblastomu.
Symptoms blastoma brain consists of increased intracranial pressure as a result of compressing processes in the brain, leading to a strong bursting headaches that are worse during coughing, sneezing, and when you turn your head.
first signs of brain neoplasms may include: dizziness, vomiting, sudden fountain, epilepsy, seizures, mood changes, mental.May be present perception disorders manifested by hallucinations, change in taste, color and smell, breach, in some cases, coordination.In the body, there is an increase of intoxication, which causes fatigue, lethargy, memory impairment, attention and delicacy.Symptoms generally depend on the location of neoplasms in the brain.But the strong attacks of headaches that are not cropped analgesics are the main manifestations of the disease.
To date, there is the most effective method of treatment of neoplasms of the brain - a radiosurgical Gamma Knife, which is in the form of a hat is worn on the patient's head after some training and special built-radioactive emitters direct beam on blastoma, for its destruction.Such radiation destroys the tumor in the most remote regions of the brain, and underlying tissue next to receive a minimum percentage of the exposure.Simultaneously, for the treatment of neoplasms of the brain can be used surgical treatment, chemotherapy and radiation exposure.
This malignancy that develops from the mucous membrane of the stomach as a result of exposure to nutritional factors that are associated with power (abuse of harmful food);effects of smoking and alcohol;chronic pathologies (stomach ulcer, erosive gastritis, and atrophic character);Helicobacter bacteria;hereditary factors, and hormone activity.
Almost 80% of patients in the initial forms of neoplasms of the stomach do not make specific claims, but expressed clinical picture indicates stages of the disease in the later stages of the propagation of tumors in many organs, causing the development of renal neoplasms and even blastoma skin.
Symptoms of gastric neoplasms are divided into specific and nonspecific group.For specific characteristic aching, nagging, dull pain in the epigastric region, which often occur after meals, but may wear and periodic.Vomiting of food eaten, mixed with blood.Embarrassing passage of food, overcrowding in the stomach, increased regurgitation and heartburn.For non-specific - a feverish temperature, decreased appetite, weakness.In advanced process - ascites, jaundice or pallor of the skin, lymph node enlargement.
to treat different types of neoplasms used chemotherapy, radiation exposure and surgery.And the choice of a particular method of treatment depends on such factors, which include the patient's age, stage of neoplasm, its location and type.
Recently began intensively used immunotherapeutic treatment of cancer.