Malignant tumors



glioma photo Glioma - a widespread primary tumor mass in the brain, which originates in the glial cells of the nervous system.Nerve cells, with the help of glial cells, can safely operate.But even these aides sometimes form a tumor in the form of glioma.This type of malignant disease is divided into several subtypes, such as oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, astrocytoma and glioblastoma extensive destruction.All of them can be localized in different parts of any region of the brain.

Glioma is a malignant, which is growing with rapid speed and benign, slow-growing and less damaging to the brain tissue.All types of gliomas are evaluated on four stages.By the fourth are the most malignant forms such as glioblastoma with extensive lesions (multiforme).

Glioma reasons

etiological factors, indicating the variety of reasons, are reduced to basic chetyrёm factors.The decisive role in the development of glioma given to viruses and oncogenes.Viral-genetic theory of Zelberu consists of the integration of

viral genomes and healthy cells.Viruses with oncogenes may contain oncornaviruses.Exogenous viruses include Epstein-Barr virus, herpes and hepatitis B. According to this theory carcinogenesis has two phases with different functions viruses.In the first phase the viral genome damage cells and their transformation into malignant, and the second - formed glioma cancer cells multiply and here the virus does not play a special role.

in the development of glioma huge influence physical and chemical agents.Thus, the formation of tumors associated with some action of carcinogens, which are incorporated into the genome of the cells.Carcinogenesis dishormonal properties is reduced to an imbalance of hormones, estrogen in particular.

disontogeneticheskoy In theory, which suggested Kongeym, it became clear that glioma can arise from cell and tissue changes at the embryonic level and abnormally developing tissues as a result of some of the factors that trigger this process.

And the last reason in the formation of glioma is a mutation that results in the transformation of the genome, leading to the formation of such cancer cells.

Glioma symptoms

Symptoms of gliomas is very diverse and can start a headache, cramps and end.These clinical manifestations are similar to symptoms of other neurological diseases.

direct damage to the structure of the nervous system, brain and squeezing his tumor, cause the appearance of the characteristic symptoms.Initially, the disease they may be invisible, and then slowly increase or immediately manifest.One of the most common symptoms of gliomas is considered a headache that has different characteristics depending on the location of the tumor, as well as other factors.This pain can be constant and severe, occurs immediately after sleep and disappear over time;nemigrenoznoy, together with vomiting or confusion;with numbness of the skin, double vision and muscle weakness.The pain can be amplified in the head during coughing or during exercise, and after a change in body position.When glioma often marked gastrointestinal symptoms.And for the elderly is characterized by the typical signs of the disease such as seizures.

During localization of glioma and defeat it to any one part of the brain appear partial seizures, in which the patient remains in confusion, convulsive twitching muscles.In these patients the fuzzy intellectual and emotional perception of events.Much less often they reveal the generalized seizures caused by damage to nerve cells in many parts of the brain in which patients with glioma lose consciousness.

glioma sometimes accompanied by a loss of peripheral vision or a sudden his disorder, and patients may be seeing double or absent ears with a slight dizziness.

Manifestations glioma usually depend on its pressure on certain parts of the brain.In this case, there are primary symptoms of focal character.And depending on the progression of the disease marked hypertension, i.e.increased intracranial pressure.It may also violate the sensitivity of the skin, in which the patient is not able to feel the warmth, pain and touch.Sometimes patients lose the ability to control your body in space.Among movement disorders can distinguish paresis and paralysis, which can affect how one limb and whole body.When squeezing glioma certain parts of the brain develops central paresis or paralysis, which are characterized by the absence of signals from the brain, and therefore there is a loss of movement.

If persistent irritation focal cortical seizures appear with the characteristic seizures.During the destruction of the auditory nerve glioma, the patient is completely ceases to hear, and sometimes audible sounds turn into noise for him.

When the optic nerve glioma in a patient can be partial or complete loss of vision, because it overlaps the signal flow from the cerebral cortex to the retina.With the progression of the pathological process, the patient gradually loses written and spoken language.At first, she slurred, but gradually it becomes impossible to understand.This also applies to handwriting.

Symptoms of gliomas isolated disorders of the autonomic nervous system.This patient constantly feels weak and gets tired very quickly.

If glioma affects the pituitary gland or hypothalamus, then there are hormonal disorders;cerebellum and midbrain - change of gait, coordination of movements.

Glioma brain

This disease in 60% of cases can be found among all the brain tumors.Basically primary intracerebral tumors and glioma is the brain.She looks in the form of pink, white or gray with reddish nodes, which are fuzzy outlines.Typically, glioma brain is localized to the walls of cerebral ventricle or chiasm.Much less, it can be located in the nerve trunks, which leads to the development of optic nerve glioma.In rare cases, it can grow into the lining of the brain or the cranial bone.

cerebral gliomas looks like a round or spindle-shaped, with sizes ranging from 3 mm to the size of a large apple.Basically, this tumor grows relatively slowly and does not give metastases.But, nevertheless, it is typical for the expressed infiltrative growth in which it is sometimes impossible to determine among healthy tissue pathology, even with a microscope.Thus, brain glioma is a degeneration of the surrounding nerve tissue that does not always correspond to the degree of neurological impairment to the size of the tumor itself.

glioma brain distinguished in three main types, which correspond to the beginning of destruction of nerve cells: astrocytoma, ependymoma and oligodendroglioma.There are also mixed forms of the disease, for example, and oligoastrocytoma astroblastoma.

are four malignant degree of glioma brain.For first-degree characteristic benign gliomas with slow growth, such as giant cell astrocytoma, juvenile astrocytoma and pleomorphic ksantoastrotsitomy.The second stage is characterized by slow progression from one sign of malignancy, for which is characteristic of atypical cells.At the same time, this form of glioma brain can go in the third and fourth degree.The third degree is a two attributes of the three.These include: mitoznye figures atypia or nuclear mikroproliferatsiya endothelium.But the fourth degree - glioblastoma multiforme is at which marked necrotic area.

Gliomas are brain subtentorial and supratentorial type, because of their place of location.

Clinical symptoms in the brain glioma is characterized by a variety of symptoms, and depends on its location.In most cases, patients have cerebral disorders that are not cropped simple medications for headaches.And they, in turn, accompanied by weight in the eyes, stomach disorders such as nausea and vomiting, sometimes convulsive seizures.These symptoms become pronounced in lesions of glioma brain ventricles and cerebrospinal fluid pathways.In this case there is a violation of the circulation of cerebrospinal fluid and its outflow, which becomes the cause of hydrocephalus, intracranial pressure with hypertension.

locations for focal brain gliomas characterized by symptoms of visual impairment, vestibular ataxia, speech disorders, or paresis of paralysis, decreased deep or surface sensitivity, mental disorders.

diagnosis of glioma brain begin by asking the patient's complaints.Considerable attention is paid to the analysis of mnemonic and mental state of the patient.Then using electromyography;electroneurogram;echoencephalography, which will help to identify or exclude hydrocephalus.When visual impairment is assigned to specialist advice and conduct such examinations are as ophthalmoscopy, perimetry and viziometriya.With existing seizure, appoint the EEG.

At diagnosis important point is the differentiation of brain tumor with a hematoma in the brain abscess, epilepsy and other nervous system tumors, as well as the effects of a stroke.

most effective method of examination of brain glioma is currently considered an MRI.If you can not spend it, then use CT or MSCT brain scintigraphy or contrast angiography of brain vessels.To clarify the diagnosis appointed by lumbar puncture, which detects tumor cells.But only conducted surgery or stereotactic biopsy can establish a definitive diagnosis of brain glioma, specifying the identification of malignancy, and its type.

Treatment of glioma

absolute removal of glioma - a virtually impossible task for neurosurgeons, which reach only the first degree of the pathological process.This is because the tumor is a significant infiltration, which can spread to other tissues.But the use of modern technology to start in the first steps to positive results.Therefore, the surgical method in the treatment of glioma is a tumor resection only.There are also contraindications for surgery, which may be associated with an unstable condition of the patient, presence of other pathologies spread of glioma in two hemispheres at once or inoperable localization.

to treat glioma widely used chemotherapy and radiolechenie when it is impossible to carry out the operation, as well as before and after surgery.Beam radiation and chemotherapy in the preoperative period are appointed only after a confirmed diagnosis of these biopsies.It is now widely used stereotactic radiosurgery, which affects glioma with minimal exposures surrounding tissue.However, these therapies can not fully replace surgery as sometimes glioma affects such a site on which it is impossible to act radiation or chemotherapy.

mainly glioma is characterized by a poor prognosis, as a result of incomplete removal she quickly relapses.With a high degree of malignancy, many patients die within the first year.And with the first degree, and complete removal is possible to reach 80% five-year survival rate after surgery.

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