carcinoma - a cancer that develops from the epithelial structure of the skin, intestine, glands, gastric mucosa and respiratory system.Carcinoma is a malignancy of many organs and systems, which develops due to various violations cellular metabolic processes and reduce their control on the part of the body.Therefore, after the cells are formed by dividing a quick acquire new qualities and become partially independent from the controlled system of the body, they are no longer adequately perform its functions, iebecome unable to properly differentiate.And sincethey do not participate in the body, these cells become superfluous and from the immune system tries to rid.Excessive number of new, proliferating cells, which require food and energy, is attacking the tissue and / or organs involved in their education.Hence the introduction of carcinoma cells in the tissue structure of destroying them, capturing the bloodstream and / or lymphatic system, through which are formed metastases.
body of any person is endowed with a certain protection against the formation of malignant carcinomas, which is the immune system, but all the people it is different.With proper operation of immunity, special killer cells, T-lymphocytes identify foreign, reborn, tumor formation and kill them.Thus, in the development of carcinoma in the first place mainly stands weakened immunity, which develops as a result of poor, poor nutrition, smoking, alcohol and narcotic drugs producing ultraviolet radiation.Therefore, all these adverse factors damage the structure of DNA, and it, in turn, can not fully recover and begins to run the tumor process, which will depend on the quantity and properties of carcinogens.It can be concluded that increased levels of carcinogens in the human body, but also a hereditary factor may be the cause of the development of carcinoma.
Furthermore, the formation of malignant pathology is largely dependent on the different types of carcinogens such as DNA chain can be damaged due to an excessive amount of energy transfer and the appearance of free radicals, especially after exposure to ultraviolet and X-rays.Chemical carcinogens form new DNA structure at which there adductors PAH-DNA, DNA-aflatoxin, NNK-DNA, DNA-aminobiphenyl, NNN-DNA and DNA-benzpiren.
The development of carcinoma can affect viruses that change the structure of the cell DNA and often built into it.Very often in carcinogenesis involves inflammation of chronic nature, foreign bodies, drug treatment, particularly hormone.
Also, scientists have determined that the damage accumulated in oncogenes and suppressor genes occur in chronic exposure to carcinogens, and some of the factors that trigger the progression of the tumor, its malignancy and metastasis.When genetic factors increase the risk of carcinoma, which is due to reincarnations of carcinogens and DNA damage.
This disease refers to frequently occurring disease, breast cancer, and the risk of developing this pathology with age rather strongly increased.
Breast carcinoma is considered to be a new formation that grows from the tissue of the prostate and lines the entire body.It is often diagnosed with ductal carcinoma, which is of unknown diseases.Breast carcinoma originates in the milk ducts and lumens tumor to other tissues of the body not covered.
reasons for the development of this disease can be early onset of menstruation, the absence of pregnancy, late onset of menopause, hereditary factors and pregnancy after thirty-five years, as well as long-term use of hormonal methods.In the formation of mammary carcinoma is not the last role played by detection of abnormal genes that are responsible for the development of tumors of the body.
During routine inspection of the patient to identify the mammary carcinoma is almost impossible, however, there may be discharge from the nipple and tumor growths, while completely missing painful.
But diagnosing ductal carcinoma can be available with mammography, which allows you to see the formation of tumors in the breast area as mikrokaltsinom.So the next step in confirming the diagnosis is a biopsy.
There is another type of breast carcinoma - is invasive, in which the growing tumor mass across the surface of the body.This type of cancer is characterized by the formation of a solid seal with uneven edges, inverted nipples, a possible increase in breast size as a result of the uneven formation of carcinoma.The clinical picture of the disease can be folded out of the common symptoms of intoxication, which manifest differences of temperature of the body, weight loss, lack of appetite, weakness, anemia, duration of the current.
Factors that may contribute to the development of the disease is different chemicals, ionizing radiation during long-term effects on the body, the disease caused by a viral disease and a weakened immune system.
After confirming breast carcinoma should be remembered that in the early stages of the disease is still not a sentence.It is important to know that the inner spirit of the human impact on the long process of recovery.
for treatment of invasive carcinoma of the breast is used, as a rule, lumpectomy surgery.At the heart of this operation is the removal of all the cancer cells so that the edge of the resected tumor began to clean.
When ductal carcinoma prescribe a course of radiation exposure.If the tumor was from the dependence of hormonal preparations, in order to reduce the formation of new or recurrent cancers, hormone therapy is used to treat carcinoma.
Squamous cell carcinoma
This disease is a malignant epithelial neoplasm of the skin and mucous membranes, which develops from keratinocytes under the influence of various carcinogens.The first descriptions of squamous cell carcinoma occur in 1775, where the carcinogen in the development of the disease revealed soot, which trigger the development of carcinoma of the skin of the scrotum at the chimney sweep.And already in 1882, they made the first suggestion of links between malignant disease and taking the drug containing arsenic in the development of the same disease.
Today squamous cell carcinoma accounts for almost 20% of all skin cancer pathology.More often this disease affects people over fifty years old, and mostly men.
exact etiological factors of development of squamous cell carcinoma is still unknown.But there are some things that can trigger this tumor.These include excessive sun exposure people with bad light and sunbathing with skin photosensitivity of the skin first and second types;papillomoavirus rights;ray irradiation and immunosuppressive therapy, trauma, industrial carcinogens (lubricating oil, crude petroleum, tar, fuel oil).
Typically, squamous cell carcinoma located in the lip area, particularly the lower and is 90% of all cases.But it may be localized on the exposed surfaces, and it can be found in the legs, penis and tongue.
Squamous cell carcinoma on the grounds of histological examination is divided into two forms, such as the stratum and neorogovevayuschy.For the first form of the disease characterized by the proliferation of epithelial cords that have expressed polymorphism diskompleksatsiya and some dyskeratosis cells.In the second form - the predominance of cells, which are hyperchromatic nuclei;epithelial cell layers are separated from the epidermis, and actinic weakly expressed or absent.
Confirmation of the diagnosis is always based on the methods of morphological examination.
Squamous cell carcinoma occurs with local invasive growth, metastasis to regional lymph nodes.The most dangerous among the early metastatic carcinoma of the lower lip believe, ear and penis.
Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, and spreads by hematogenous lymphogenous.In 15% of the lower lip carcinoma can metastasize, and in 30% of squamous cell carcinoma spreads from post-burn tissue, ulcers, and chronic forms of radiation damage of the skin.Moreover, such a pathology can develop within 35 years after radiotherapy and burns.
On the basis of all clinical manifestations of isolated papillary (exophytic) form of squamous cell carcinoma and infiltrative ulcer (endophyte).
For exophytic form characterized by formation like warts that have papillary surface quickly grow and bleed with little injury.With the progression of tumor cell carcinoma is higher above the surface while germination inside.After that it looks dense and slow-moving, but at a later stage - there are necrotic ulceration of the tumor.
for endophytic form - is the formation of a tumor cell, which is characterized by a smooth surface or giperkeratoticheskaya with the rapid growth and ulceration.In this case, the ulcer crater has an irregular shape, raised edges and uneven dense bottom, crusty brown.When removing these crusts, there is a bottom, which is constantly bleeding and it emits serous secret.This plague is increasing and at the same time captures the surrounding tissue.Thus, cancer grows into the muscle, cartilage, and then affects the bones.
to treat squamous cell carcinoma of the surgical method used in the form of excision within healthy cells with the application before or after radiotherapy blizkofokusnoy and with significant lesions - skin plastic.Sometimes using laser evaporation and photodynamic laser therapy.
Five-year survival in squamous cell carcinoma of the lips, which has a size of less than two cm, 90%, and at a significant scale and distribution in the lower jaw - up to 50%.Danger to life is considered to be localized squamous cell carcinoma in the ear canal from the outside, in the nasolabial triangle and behind the ears.This tumor can produce metastases deep, so eventually there bleeding from large vessels has destroyed or infectious complications.
This type of disease is considered one of the most common among malignant pathologies of the uterus.Carcinoma of the endometrium of the uterus develops and is most often called adenocarcinoma.
in the development of carcinoma of the uterus many factors related to the effects on the female body estrogen hormone.It follows that women in menopause significantly increases the percentage of sick of this disease.There is also an assumption that these tumors are the result of genetic mutations in cells as a result of the negative impact of internal and external factors of the body.These include carcinogenic viruses as herpes and human papillomavirus;smoking, alcohol abuse;early and started randomly sexually active;various injuries cervix after childbirth, abortion and sex.
Among the most common symptoms of carcinoma of the uterus vaginal bleeding is considered to be pathological.Especially in this risk group of women with irregular periods and are in the menopausal age.Therefore, for this reason 90% of the carcinoma of the uterus revealed more early.
Less common symptoms of uterine carcinoma include pain and discomfort in the abdomen, as well as during sexual intercourse;reduction of appetite and body weight;weakness and general fatigue;constipation;pretty frequent urination;pain attacks in the legs and back.All these symptoms may indicate the presence of other diseases, so the need to consult experts and conduct all types of surveys to clarify the diagnosis.
The only way to accurately diagnose carcinoma of the uterus is considered a biopsy of the mucous layer of the endometrium.But it is also prescribed for examination hysteroscopy, transvaginal ultrasound and the abdomen.Laboratory blood tests performed to identify the tumor marker and hemoglobin determination.Upon confirmation of the diagnosis is sometimes recommended to undergo additional testing to determine the spread of carcinoma.But X-rays of the chest makes it possible to define existing signs sprouting carcinoma to the lungs.
In carcinoma of the uterus, many women is necessary to conduct operations on its removal.Today, using different types of surgery after the passing of all examinations.As a rule, doctors are trying to carry out such an operation to be able to keep this body, and after prescribed combination chemotherapy or radiation exposure to an absolute cure.But if the uterus carcinoma diagnosed in the later stages, of course, carry out removal of the uterus and the hysterectomy.
Among the surgical treatment performed hormonal treatment therapy drugs and radiotherapy.
In locally common form of uterine carcinoma sometimes offer undergo radiation exposure as a primary treatment.This indicates the prevalence of the disease is not beyond the walls of the uterus.But the early stages of chemotherapy mainly not used.
use in the treatment gormonozamenyayuschey therapy with progesterone reduces or controls the process of metastasis in carcinoma of the uterus, especially metastases in the lungs.
This type of carcinoma usually appears as a painless node in cervical lymph nodes or the thyroid gland.The disease can affect people of any age, but mostly it affects women, who make up about 75% of all patients after forty years.
primary form of papillary carcinoma rarely appears encapsulated, but in the existing capsule manifests itself not aggressively.Such localized carcinoma of the thyroid gland multifocal unlike follicular cancer.From 20 to 80% of the glands which were examined in surgical resection, presents multiple foci.Spread extrathyroidal character detected in 15% of cases.
Papillary carcinoma often gives metastases to regional lymph nodes and mediastinal neck.After the surgery in 40% of patients have regional lymph node malignancy increased localization.During the regular punctures of these units and their microscopic examination revealed metastasis rate to 90%.
Papillary carcinoma is much more common among malignant thyroid abnormalities, and with proper treatment differs the most favorable outlook.This type of carcinoma can be installed after the needle biopsy material taken from the affected fire.Cells papillary carcinoma have a certain distinctive features from other types of tumors.This malignancy grows quite slowly and usually does not give distant metastases, iedoes not exceed the area of the primary lesion.However, it spreads to the lymph nodes in the neck, which are located near the thyroid gland in the central part of the fiber and the side, parallel to the neurovascular bundle.
Treatment of papillary carcinoma consists of two phases.In the first case, a surgery, thyroidectomy, which may be supplemented by carrying out in the central neck dissection.The second stage is characterized by radioactive iodine therapy, but it is assigned is not all patients with papillary carcinoma.It is carried out in the event that there is accurate confirmation of affected lymph nodes, germination carcinoma through the capsule available aggressive tumor subtypes (vysokokletochnyh and stolbchatokletochnyh).