Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia - a pathological malignancy in blood-forming system.The disease originates in the bone marrow, where the formation of large amounts of white blood cells (immature white blood cells).Acute lymphoblastic leukemia absolutely controls the processes of growth, even updates and difficult maturation of all human cells is lost.Leukocytes do not mature and become full and functional cells, however, it is their rapid and uncontrolled division.Thus, there is a process of displacement cancerous healthy cells to take up their position in the bone marrow.So he loses the ability to form healthy platelets, red blood cells and white blood cells.This causes anemia, infectious complications and frequent bleeding.Sometimes these symptoms and are the first signs of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.All
leukemia through blood and lymphatic system spread throughout the body and affect virtually every system.Therefore, this anomaly is considered to be of systemi
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia causes
In the development of this disease in humans suggest violations in the composite and structural set of chromosomes, which may be caused by the action of hereditary factors or acquired as a result of mutations in the original genes.The main such factors include ionizing radiation, as well as a role in the formation of acute lymphoblastic leukemia played chemical mutagens.
There is evidence that the pathologic tumor becomes more frequent among persons exposed to benzene or taking cytotoxic drugs such as Mustargen, Leykaran, Azathioprine, Cyclophosphamide and Sarkolizin.
There are also suggestions that the hereditary factor predisposes the development of this pathology in lymphatic tissue.In addition, there are descriptions of observations relating to the dominant and recessive inheritance paths of acute lymphoblastic leukemia with a low incidence in certain ethnic groups and high - in others.Generally in such cases there is no inheritance of the disease, and the ability to undergo chromosomal variation, i.e.limfokletki can transform into leukemia.Therefore, the chromosomal analysis showed that acute lymphoblastic leukemia is characterized by settling clone abnormal cells throughout the body, which were formed from the first, the last mutation of the cell.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia symptoms
for this cancer is characterized by several stages of its course.These include: predleykozny period, followed by the acute form, then comes the remission followed by relapses of the disease and the last stage - is terminal.Of course, the last three stages of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in most cases dependent upon the effectiveness of the treatment.And if the disease is cured, the recurrent processes and terminal stage completely absent.A resistance of the primary nature of the observed alternation of remission with a relapse.
predleykoznogo during the course of the period of the clinical signs of acute lymphoblastic leukemia is almost impossible to diagnose.But the acute phase begins pretty quickly and is characterized by a variety of symptoms, which are characteristic of a strong increase in the processes of pathological tissue and suppressing the normal function of blood formation.This is manifested blast transformation of bone marrow, an increase of somatic organs and lymph nodes.
Adults different forms of acute lymphoblastic leukemia is characterized by early symptoms of intoxication, anorexia without significant weight loss, pain in the joints and bones.Further, an increase in organs such as the liver, spleen and lymph nodes, especially in the neck, armpit and groin part.When enlarged submandibular lymph nodes, parotid and periorbital marked symptomatic complex Mikulic.In the course of the disease, many patients have pale mucous membranes and skin.
also acute lymphoblastic leukemia may occur hemorrhagic syndrome, which is expressed by the polymorphic nature of the bleeding from small to large sizes, as well as nosebleeds, kidney and from the gastrointestinal tract.All these signs point to the development of thrombocytopenia and anemia due to the suppression of normal hematopoiesis.
for acute lymphoblastic leukemia characterized by rare symptoms such as leykemidy which are formed on the surface of the skin and its fatty tissue.It may also be present necrotic lesions of the skin, mucous membranes of the mouth and intestines.
During the progression of the pathological process, acute lymphoblastic leukemia spreads to many organs.Among them are the central nervous system and lungs, and the organs of vision, as well as the genital organs.Such clinical symptoms are more typical for the recurrence of malignant disease.But when acute lymphoblastic leukemia characterized by the appearance of the first signs of the disease, it suggests a poor prognosis disease.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children
This malignancy is the most common form of leukemia among children and adolescents, revealed almost 80% of all cases.According to statistics this disease infected each year nearly 500 children and adolescents in the period from birth to the age of fourteen.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia can affect how children of all ages and adults.Although the disease is more often diagnosed in boys from one year to five years than girls.
In children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia is caused by mutations in malignant lymphocytes, resulting in new cells stop its development.Such a process shutdown can occur at any stage of the cells, so acute lymphoblastic leukemia can occur in different forms.They all have different clinical course of the disease, and treatment strategy, too, will depend on these forms.
Currently there are no exact causes that contribute to or affect the development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children.It is only known that the disease starts to develop when the malignant change precursors of lymphocytes.These mutations alter the entire genetic material of the cell.But mostly it remains unclear why some children, these changes in genes lead to the formation of pathology, and other children - no.This can also be explained by the fact that acute lymphoblastic leukemia affects not only genetic predisposition and environmental factors.Thus, it is considered to be a multifactorial disease.
also known that diseases such as Fanconi anemia and Down syndrome increases the risk of development of this malignant disease in children.In addition, the radiation X-rays, radiation, chemical carcinogens, drugs and certain viruses may contribute to the development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children.
During the first few weeks of developing the clinical picture of the disease.Since the tumor abnormal cells gradually affect the whole bone marrow and other organs, and the symptoms of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children initially manifested apathy, lack of interest in games and pallor.This is due to the insufficient number of red blood cells in the body of the child, which carry oxygen to all cells.A shortage of full-lymphocytes and granulocytes weakens the immune system, which is a consequence of the frequent infections with a feverish temperature.
in the absence of platelets, there are skin hemorrhages and bleeding of mucous.Malignant cells, moving throughout the body, not only cause changes in the blood, but the pain in different organs.Primarily there pain in the bones of the hands and feet, after filling bone cavities and bone marrow leukemia cells.Sometimes these pains become such a force that the children can not even walk.When the accumulation of abnormal cells in the lymph nodes, liver and spleen, pain in the abdomen.And in the propagation of the disease in the lining of the brain children complain of headaches, they observed facial paralysis, impaired vision and may open vomiting.
Symptoms of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children can occur different and manifest themselves individually.Therefore, to clarify the diagnosis is necessary to pass a complete diagnosis of the disease.
If you suspect this anomaly, a pediatrician assigns laboratory studies as a detailed analysis of the blood.And have forced changes in the hemogram to make bone marrow puncture in hospital to confirm the diagnosis.To obtain more accurate information on the affected organs prescribed ultrasound, X-ray, MRI, CT and scintigraphy of the skeleton, lumbar puncture.
acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment
If confirmed diagnosis of patients at a specialized clinic starting to use the most modern and efficient treatment.In the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia chemotherapy is given pride of place.For this technique to patients administered cytotoxic drugs that slow down and reduce the growth of cancer cells.Some patients spend an additional radiation exposure of the central nervous system.And the use of high-dose chemotherapy makes it possible to carry out stem cell transplantation.The main objective of such treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia is possible total destruction of malignant leukemic cells throughout the body to restore full operation of the bone marrow.
duration and intensity of chemotherapy, the need for radiation exposure of the nervous system, transplantation and treatment outcome and prognosis will largely depend on the type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, its spread throughout the body of the patient and how the disease can be treated.
Along with chemotherapy appointed accompanying therapy of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, which is aimed at combating various infections, thus eliminated the side effects after chemotherapy and symptoms of intoxication.For severe form of thrombocytopenia and anemia appointed blood transfusion.
holding cell transplantation of bone marrow is included in one of the treatments for such diseases as acute lymphoblastic leukemia.It is used for those patients who have complications in the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome type.An important moment in the process of therapy remains avoidance of joining infection, due to the weakening of the immune system in patients.Acute lymphoblastic leukemia can be treated worse than adults, unlike children's pathology.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia prognosis
Today, about 70% of children who suffer from acute lymphoblastic leukemia, have a five-year remission, but in adults duration of remission can be achieved in only 20%.For example, in Germany, of the 600 patients who were ill for the first time this pathology, observed in 90 relapsing course of the disease, ie,nearly one in seven.Basically, the return of the disease occurs in the first two years after the diagnosis of disease and in rare cases - in five years.
Generally, chance of recovery after the return of acute lymphoblastic leukemia is very little, although some patients re-treatment gives good results.Five-year survival after repeated manifestations of the disease is about 35%.
statistical indicators can not predict the forecast of malignant pathology.Acute lymphoblastic leukemia can how to proceed, and end with a completely unpredictable, even while having the most favorable course, or vice versa.