Heart diseases



myocarditis photo Myocarditis - the defeat of the myocardium (heart muscle), which is mainly an inflammatory etiology, due to the impact of various invasions, infections, factors of physical and chemical nature, as well as arise as a consequenceautoimmune or allergic diseases.

Typically, myocarditis develops as a complication of various pathologies and the frequency of their occurrence is unknown.For example, when diphtheria disease occurs in 30% of patients, and the mortality rate in this case from complications Cardiology character reaches 55%.Diagnosing SARS myocarditis when there is almost 15%.

In some cases, myocarditis is a consequence of cross-autoimmune changes.Myocarditis immune etiology may occur as an independent disease, a syndrome of systemic disease of the heart tissue, and allergic processes in slow motion.

also on the formation of myocarditis may affect toxins or factors of a physical nature.These postmortem studies with signs of inflammatory myocarditis provide figures autopsies

as 4-8%.

Usually this disease affects people from thirty to forty years.And women suffer more often than men.But the strong half of mankind there is a more severe symptoms of the disease.However, until now not figure out the exact causes of myocarditis and all matters related to its mechanism of formation, clinical diagnosis and therapy of a kind, although myocarditis more than two hundred years ago, emerged as an independent disease.

Myocarditis Heart

for a heart disease characterized by inflammation of the myocardium due to infections of various etiologies, the negative effects after consuming drugs, disorders of the immune system that cause cell damage of heart tissue and the actions of various kinds of toxins.

Typically, myocarditis is characterized by asymptomatic with the advent of self-healing.In addition, it is noted that myocarditis affects women more often than males.But the latter category of patients with this pathology occurs in very severe forms.Statistically, myocarditis, the heart is more common in the reproductive age of about forty.

On the occurrence of myocarditis may affect the heart primarily infections and toxins trapped in the body.Basically, a viral etiology of HIV, measles, hepatitis B, adenovirus, infectious mononucleosis and influenza viruses.

Among the bacteria that cause myocarditis heart isolated: meningococcus, streptococcus, gonococcus, diphtheria bacillus and mycobacteria tuberculosis.A fungal nature, namely aspergillosis, actinomycosis and candidiasis.Also, a variety of allergic reactions can trigger the formation of myocarditis heart.All this may be due to the negative effects of drugs on the myocardium, resulting in the immune system contributes to the development of antibodies against its own cells and tissues, causing their failure.Of course, the use of drugs and alcohol, as a toxic substances, causing structural damage of the myocardium.The causes of the toxic nature include diabetes and thyroid disease.

Symptoms of myocarditis, the heart does not have specific clinical picture, due to which it would be possible to diagnose the disease in 100%.Basically myocarditis, the heart is considered the secondary after the disease pathology.And in many cases it is possible to trace the connection between heart disease and infection.

At the beginning of the disease marked pain in the heart area with a further extension to the entire area of ​​the breast that occur after exercise, and at rest.Then develop difficulty breathing in the form of shortness of breath after doing any physical action due to lack of heartbeat.The majority of patients experiencing frequent palpitation, leading to fainting, dizziness and swelling of the lower extremities.All of these symptoms, especially after suffering a communicable disease is a signal in an address to the cardiologist.

Myocarditis heart in his diagnosis goes through several stages.Primarily conducted medical history of the patient, which includes past infectious pathology of the disease with fever, pain attacks in the joints or muscles.In addition, if there are heartaches, whether there is severe fatigue during the last time and whether there was speeded heartbeat.

Then prescribe detailed analysis of the blood to diagnose an increased white blood cell count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, although these figures may be intermittent.You must also do an electrocardiogram and remove daily monitoring by the method of Holter.It is not always possible to determine with the help of an ECG heart myocarditis.Therefore it is necessary to use other methods of diagnosis in the form of X-ray examination, which fully shows the degree of increase in the borders of the heart and blood stagnant processes in the lungs.And sometimes resort to a biopsy of the heart muscle.

also the appointment and conduct of diagnostic studies should be aware of the metabolic, endocrine and common diseases as the main cause of myocarditis heart.

the treatment of this pathology is corrected functional immune system and try to suspend a variety of complications.First appointed antiviral drugs as the main etiology of myocarditis is viral infection.It can be immunoglobulins, interferon and Riboverin.But these medications adversely affect the patient's immune system, so it is now increasingly applied in the treatment of diseases of Transfer Factor Cardio, which eliminates the damage of the DNA chain, having in its composition transferfaktory - a special molecules of the immune system.This immunomodulator not cause side effects in the body and is recommended almost everything from birth to old age, and even during pregnancy, as it has no contraindications.This Tf Cardio should be in every patient diagnosed with myocarditis, the heart, because he is currently the best means of heart in treatment of this disease.

Myocarditis causes

As a rule, myocarditis meant a lot of the heart muscle pathologies with inflammatory etiology that show various lesions and disorders of the heart muscle.One of the most frequent causes of disease are all kinds of infections, such as hepatitis B and C, influenza, herpes, adenoviruses.Also, the disease can trigger a variety of bacteria, fungi and parasites, namely Salmonella korineobakterii diphtheria, streptococcus, Rickettsia, staphylococcus and chlamydia;Candida and Aspergillus;Echinococcus and Trichinella, and others.

Myocarditis in severe form can develop after suffering sepsis, scarlet fever and diphtheria.In 50% of myocarditis is formed as a result of some high cardiotropic viruses.Sometimes this disease occurs as a consequence of connective tissue diseases such as rheumatism, systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitis, allergic diseases and rheumatoid arthritis.

Very often, toxic substances lead to the development of myocarditis heart.They may be drugs, alcohol and drugs.Myocarditis idiopathic nature runs pretty hard and is characterized by unknown etiology.

Usually, myocarditis developed in conjunction with pericarditis and endocarditis.Very rarely can observe inflammation in one myocardium.Sometimes diagnosed infectious allergic myocarditis.

Very often, myocarditis can be triggered by acute infections, usually viral;foci of chronic diseases.As well as allergies, resulting in impaired immunological response, and toxic effects.

Disorders in the immune system that occur when myocardial lesion characterized by cellular and humoral immune system and phagocytosis.The antigen of an infectious nature includes the processes of autoimmune damage to cardiomyocytes, which cause degenerative changes in heart muscle structure.As a result of inflammatory changes in myocarditis grows connective tissue that becomes further reason for the development of cardiosclerosis.

All this reduces the contractile function of the myocardium with irreversible and leads to a lack of work processes circulatory disturbance of heart rate and even death.

Myocarditis symptoms

main complaint of patients with myocarditis is pain, which is localized in the heart.As a rule, 60% of cases it is revealed in non-rheumatic myocarditis, infectious and allergic.But when tonsillogenic myocarditis such pain occurs in 93% of patients.

basically no change in the pericardium.This recalls the pain of angina, which is marked by prolonged attack of angina or myocardial.Pain in myocarditis radiates mainly in the left side of the arm, shoulder, neck, and sometimes localized in the interscapular region.Very often, the pain is on the left chest, which distinguishes her from the pain of myocardial infarction.

As a rule, the occurrence of pain or gain it can affect physical activities, but sometimes it develops in the absolute rest.Pain attacks may continue up to several hours, as they tend to repetition during the day.Some patients feel their time, but it is observed in very rare cases.Most often the pain is stabbing or aching without irradiation.Sometimes anginal pain may alternate with pains of different nature and intensity of the top of the heart or in the precordium.At some point the pain may be accompanied by pericarditis.

Almost 50% of patients in myocarditis marked shortness of breath, which is due to physical stress, and sometimes even negligible.Myocarditis in serious flow is characterized by difficulty breathing at rest and asphyxiating seizures during sleep, and it is night.

For frequent patient complaints include the failure of the heart, which is manifested in the form of remission of cardiac rhythm, and then the appearance of heart.As a rule, the heartbeat begins, and ends slowly, but sometimes it can be expressed paroxysmal tachycardia.Very rarely can observe chaotic beating of the heart, which is the symptoms of atrial fibrillation.

In addition, there is a weakness in patients, they begin to sweat and complained of headache, dizziness and tendency to faint.For nonspecific myocarditis infectious and toxic-allergic sometimes characterized by arthralgia.

Common symptoms of myocarditis is composed of increased weakness and fatigue of patients, but this is not always the cause of myocarditis.Therefore, the disease can be detected at the ECG, X-ray examination or accidental medical examination.

Also in very rare cases with myocarditis there is a high rise in temperature, which may be due to the underlying disease of the patient.But low-grade fever is often noted in almost 50% of patients.

If visual inspection does not reveal characteristic changes in patients.Sometimes these patients are a little pale, while keeping a history of heart failure with acrocyanosis, tachypnea, in rare cases, and when there is heavy during orthopnea, pasty, or swelling of the lower extremities.When manifestations of insufficient work of the right ventricle comes anasarca.

When myocarditis often tapped tachycardia, but the heart rate can be both normal and low.Many patients detected beats, and for end-stage characteristic thready pulse.

Blood pressure in myocarditis is almost always reduced.Myocarditis, having a systemic disease may have etiopathogenetic factor, and hypertension as a common symptom.Lowering of blood pressure may be due to poor contractile work of the heart in conjunction with insufficient vascular function.If there is a heavy defeat toxins or vessels having specific violation of their conductivity, the developing collapse.

When percussion show the left border of the heart, ectopic outwards, sometimes the heart is expanded on both sides or just on the right side.Cardiac impulse at the top, as a rule, is weakened or completely not palpable.But with an enlarged heart notes push the soft diffuse nature.

When myocarditis heart sounds are muffled or dull.For severe forms of myocarditis is characterized by heart rate as a pendulum, in which it is difficult to determine where the first tone, and wherein the second.Also observed diastoichesky a gallop rhythm, characteristic of heart failure.The majority of patients with myocarditis marked systolic murmur in the upper part of the heart.When myocarditis nonspecific etiology determined presystolic noise that simulates the sound of mitral stenosis.

non-rheumatic myocarditis may be acute, subacute, chronic, progressive and chronic relapsing course.The acute form of the disease is characteristic of myocarditis with infectious etiology.This applies particularly to viral infections, typhus, diphtheria, and others. When pathogens or their toxins directly affect the myocardium.Also acute myocarditis flow seen with chemo-toxic and radiation injury of the heart muscle.But infectious and toxic-allergic myocarditis can occur from acute to chronic forms of slowly flowing.Chronic forms may like to progress, and recur.Symptoms of recurrent myocarditis occurs against the backdrop of acute infection, stress, hypothermia and others.

Myocarditis in Children

In this disease may sting infectious etiology directly into the heart muscle, but most of myocarditis in children is characterized by an infectious-toxic or infectious-allergicheskim genesis.

Children myocarditis, as a true disease still remains poorly understood.

main causal factors that contribute to the formation of myocarditis, especially at an early age are the Coxsackie virus, ECHO, much less respiratory viruses, and others. It is often detected after myocarditis different etiologies of sepsis, acute bacterial endocarditis, collagen.

In addition, there are parasitic and protozoal myocarditis, as well as allergic and toxic.But with scarlet fever, tuberculosis, typhoid and diphtheria it is somewhat less revealed myocarditis, which is associated with the early diagnosis of the underlying disease, the effectiveness of its treatment and prevention.

Myocarditis in children is almost as classified, as in adults, but recovered some of the features in the form of congenital myocarditis, which develops in utero as a result of infection of the mother during pregnancy various infections.These include rubella, enterovirus, and bacterial infections, as well as parasitic and other diseases.Almost 1/3 of children at an early age, who develop non-rheumatic myocarditis, detect changes in the endocardium and pericardium.

Pediatric myocarditis is combined with the pathology of the central nervous system, especially with regard to viral encephalomyocarditis, congenital toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus generalized.

Symptoms of myocarditis in the neonatal period and early childhood consists of acute or subacute course of the disease, which usually occurs in severe form.Postnatal developed myocarditis after infectious diseases or in the period.When low-grade fever, and sometimes high temperature child becomes pale with a grayish or cyanotic complexion, he loses interest in everything around him.