Heart disease - a kind of a number of structural abnormalities and deformities of valves, walls, holes between heart chambers and vessels that violate the circulation of the inner heart vessels and predispose to the formation of acute and chronicform insufficient working circulation.Heart disease is on the etiological factors of congenital and acquired origin.
Cardiac malformations with congenital etiology is divided into vices that are an anomaly of the embryonic formation of SSSand heart disease, developing as a result of endocardial abnormalities in utero.Given the morphological lesions, this category is heart disease with abnormalities in the heart, in the pathological structure of the walls, both between the ventricles, and between the atria.
There are also a vice blood flow, valvular, aortic and move large vessels.For heart disease with acquired etiology tend to develop on the background of rheumatic heart disease, atherosclerosis, and sometimes after injuries and syphil
Heart disease causes
The formation of the etiology of congenital heart disease can influence gene mutation, various infectious processes, endogenous and exogenous intoxication during pregnancy.In addition, for this category are characterized by different heart defects in chromosomal disorders.
Of specific changes noted trisomy 21 in Down syndrome.Almost 50% of patients with the genetic disorders are born with CHD (congenital heart disease) such as ventricular septal defect is or atrioventricular.Sometimes mutations occur in several genes at the same time contributing to the development of heart disease.Such mutations are in TBX 5 define many patients diagnosed with Holt-Oram syndrome, which relates to the disease autosomal type having septal defects.The reason for the development of supravalvular aortic stenosis are mutations that occur in elastin gene, but changes in NKX lead to the development of heart defect tetralogy of Fallot.
Moreover, heart disease may result from various pathological nature processes occurring in the body.For example, 85% of the development of mitral stenosis and 26% for the aortic valve affected rheumatism.It can also contribute to the formation of different combinations of insufficient work of some valves and stenosis.By the formation of heart defects, acquired over a lifetime, can cause sepsis, endocarditis infectious nature, injury, atherosclerosis, and in some cases - Libman-Sacks endocarditis, rheumatoid arthritis, causing visceral lesions and scleroderma.
Sometimes different degenerative changes can become a cause of isolated mitral and aortic insufficiency, aortic stenosis, which is peculiar to non-rheumatic origin.
Heart disease symptoms
Any organic lesion of the heart valves or structures that cause specific disorders are common in a band called "heart disease."
characteristic features of these anomalies are key indicators by which fails to diagnose certain heart disease, and at what stage of development it is.This has its own symptoms with congenital etiology, which is determined almost immediately after birth, but for acquired heart abnormality characterized by sparse clinic, especially in the compensation stage.
Usually, clinical symptoms of heart disease can be divided into general and specific symptoms of the disease.For some irregularities in the structure of the heart or blood vessels is characteristic of a certain specificity of symptoms, but common symptoms are common to many diseases throughout the circulatory system.Therefore, a heart disease, such as in infants is more non-specific symptoms, in contrast to the symptoms of a certain type in the blood flow disorders.
Child heart disease is differentiated by type of color of the skin.When cyanotic skin color blue is considered the vices and defects typical for white pale shade.If heart defects white venous blood misses the ventricle, the left side of the heart or the narrowing of its outlet, as well as parallel to the aortic arch.And with blue defects observed mixing of blood vessels, or transposition.It is very rare to see the emergence of rapidly formed cyanosis of the skin of the child, which makes it possible to assume an existing heart disease is not in the singular.To confirm the diagnosis requires further examination.
The symptoms common symptoms include the appearance of signs of dizziness, frequent heartbeat, increased or decreased blood pressure, shortness of breath, cyanosis covers the skin, pulmonary edema, muscle weakness, fainting, etc.All these symptoms may not accurately indicate existing heart disease, so the exact diagnosis of the disease is possible after a thorough examination.For example, a heart defect acquired the character manages to reveal after listening to, especially if the patient has a history typical of this disorder.The mechanism enables hemodynamic once reliably and quickly identify the type of heart disease, but the stage of development is much more difficult to identify.This can be done when the signs of the disease non-specific nature.The largest number of clinical symptoms characteristic of heart diseases combined or combined form.
When subjective evaluation of congenital heart defects observed slight intensity of symptomatic manifestations, while acquired are characterized by the expression in such stages as the decompensation and subindemnification.
Clinical symptoms of stenosis is more pronounced than the lack of valves.Mitral stenosis is manifested in the form of a cat's purr diastolic, pulse gap in the artery of his left hand as a result of compression of the left subclavian artery, acrocyanosis, in the form of a heart hump, cyanosis in the nasolabial triangle.
In subkompensatsionnoy dekompensatsionnoy stages of developing and LH, leading to difficulty breathing, the appearance of dry cough with scanty white phlegm.These symptoms each time picking up and lead to the progression of the disease, which causes deterioration and weakness in the body.
When absolute decompensation heart defect patients appear swelling in some parts of the body, and pulmonary edema.For stenotic blemish of the first degree, damaging the mitral valve, when performing physical activities characteristic of shortness of breath with a sense of the heartbeat and dry cough.The deformation of the valve and is celebrated on the aortic and tricuspid valve on.When aortic lesion revealed a systolic murmur purr, weak pulse palpation of the presence of a heart hump between the fourth and fifth ribs.When tricuspid anomalies appear swelling, heaviness in the liver, is a sign of the complete filling of the vessels.Sometimes widen the veins in the lower extremities.
Symptoms of inadequate functioning of the aortic valve is made up of changes in heart rate and blood pressure.In this case, the pulse is very intense, resize pupil systole and diastole, and heart rate observed angioedema capillary origin.For the period of decompensation pressure is at the low numbers.In addition, this heart defect characterized by its progression, and the changes that occur in the myocardium, very quickly become a cause of heart failure (congestive heart failure).
patients at a younger age, and children with congenital heart defects etiology or early acquired education celebrated cardiac hump as a result of high blood pressure increased and altered myocardial left ventricle to the front of the chest wall.
When congenital cardiac anomalies, frequent heartbeat and efficient blood circulation, which is characterized at birth.Very often these defects detected cyanosis caused by septal defect between the atria or between ventricle, transposition of the aorta, stenosis of the entrance to the right ventricle and hypertrophy.All these signs of symptomatic and has a heart defect is tetralogy of Fallot, which often occurs in newborns.
Heart disease in children
heart disease, which is characterized by defects in the valve unit, and its walls is called heart disease.In the future, it leads to the development of cardiovascular disease.
heart defects in children are congenital etiology, or may be acquired during life.The reasons in the formation of a congenital defects in the heart and blood vessels adjacent to it are considered to be violations during embryogenesis.These heart defects are: defects between the partitions as between the ventricles, and between the atria;defect in the form of patent ductus arteriosus;aortic stenosis;tetralogy of Fallot;pulmonary stenosis isolated character;coarctation of the aorta.All of these heart diseases as heart defects even laid in utero, which can be detected by ultrasound of the heart, and in the early stages of development, using electrocardiography and Doppler.
The main reasons for the development of heart disease in children include: hereditary factors, smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy, ecologically unfavorable area, a history of women miscarriage or stillborn children, and suffering during pregnancy such infectious diseases as measles.
for acquired heart defects characterized by abnormalities in the valve stenosis or a lack of heart.These heart defects in children develop as a result of certain diseases migrated.These include infective endocarditis, mitral valve prolapse and rheumatism.
To determine heart disease in the child, first of all pay attention to the noise during auscultation of the heart.Available organic noises, evidence of alleged heart disease.A child with such a diagnosis is very little gains weight every month, about 400 m., Had been short of breath, and he gets tired quickly.Generally these symptoms are in the process of feeding.At the same time for a heart disease characterized by tachycardia, and cyanosis of the skin.
Mostly clear answer in the treatment of child heart disease does not exist.The selection method of therapeutic treatment, many factors play a role.This is the nature of the disease, the age of the child and his condition.It is important to take into account such a moment that heart disease in children can pass on their own, after reaching fifteen or sixteen years.All this refers to a heart defect with congenital etiology.Very often initially start the treatment of the disease that is the cause of heart disease in children and contributed to its progression.In this case, used and prophylactic medication.But acquired cardiac pathology often ending surgery.In this case, commissurotomy, which is carried out in isolated mitral stenosis.
Surgery in the presence of mitral regurgitation is appointed in cases of complications or deterioration of health of the child.The operation is performed with replacement of the valve with an artificial one.To carry out medical treatment of heart disease is assigned to the corresponding protein diet with restriction of salt and water, variety of activities obschegigienicheskih nature, as well as continued implementation of training for physical therapy.A child with a heart defect are trained to perform certain physical activities, which are constantly train the heart muscle.The first is walking, which helps to increase blood circulation and prepare the muscles for the next session.Next, a set of exercises that straighten the spine and rib cage.Of course, training is an integral part of the respiratory gymnastics.
heart defects in newborns
This category is represented by a diverse group of diseases that can manifest as minor anomalies, and incompatible with the life of heart disease.
Newborn heart disease can be based on the specific genetic causes of nature and the environment can strongly influence its formation, especially in the first trimester of pregnancy.
In addition, if the expectant mother made use of some drugs, narcotic drugs, alcohol, smoking, or ill-defined diseases of viral or bacterial etiology, there is a huge chance of developing heart disease in the fetus first, and then the newborn.Certain types of heart defects develop in the etiology of hereditary reasons.All of these diseases still possible to determine when an ultrasound examination of pregnant women, and sometimes with late diagnosis, but then heart diseases manifest themselves at different ages.
Newborn heart disease is a common disease and a very serious problem.They are divided into heart disease, characterized by discharge of blood and without relief.Clinical symptoms are most pronounced in the first embodiment of heart disease, when there is a defect between the atria partitions.In this case, the blood without oxygen enrichment enters the systemic circulation such as large, so the newborn appears cyanosis, or bluish color of the skin.Typical visible cyanosis on the lips, so there is a medical term for "blue baby".Cyanosis appears and septal defect between the ventricles.This is due to defect, in which the heart is overloaded and a small circle of the pressure in different parts of the heart.
for congenital heart defects of origin, but without shedding of blood is more characteristic koartatsiya aorta.It does not appear cyanotic tinge to the skin, but at a different level of development defect can be formed cyanosis.
The most common defects of newborns are tetralogy of Fallot and koartatsiya aorta.But the most common vices isolated defects of atrial and ventricular septa.
Defect tetralogy of Fallot is formed on the fourth to sixth weeks of pregnancy as a consequence of disturbances in heart development.A significant role is played by heredity, but also risk factors play an important role.Most often, this defect is found in infants with Down syndrome.For tetralogy of Fallot is characterized by septal defect between the ventricles, it changes the position of the aorta is narrowed pulmonary aorta and the right ventricle increases.This is heard rustling in the heart, there is shortness of breath and turning blue lips and fingers.
Koartatsiya aorta in infants is characterized by a narrowing of the aorta.Depending on this, there are two types of restriction: postduktalny and preduktalny.Last type of heart belongs to a very severe disease that is incompatible with life.In this case, the surgical intervention is necessary, since this leads to heart disease blueing of the lower body.
Defect heart valves congenital origin is present in the form of protruding portions of the endocardium that lines the inside of the heart.When such defects blood circulates in only one direction.The most common heart defects of this category is isolated aortal and lung.Symptoms of this disease consists of a certain rustling heart, labored breathing, swelling of extremities, chest pain, weakness, and loss of consciousness.To clarify the diagnosis applied electrocardiography, and one of the possible methods of treatment is considered to be an operation.
diagnosis of heart defects in newborns is to detect this pathology before the birth, that is, the method of prenatal diagnosis.There are invasive and non-invasive examination.The first method of diagnosis is cordocentesis, chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis.Art.Art.