vascular dystonia - this is quite an extensive syndrome characterized by polymorphism of clinical manifestations caused by disturbances in the autonomic nervous system.This syndrome is also called polietiologichesky somatoform autonomic dysfunction.
ICD-10 vascular dystonia is classified as a pathological condition, connecting together such diagnoses as cardiogenic neurosis, asthenia neyrotsirkuklyatornaya and dystonia, neurosis, vegetative origin and psychovegetative symptom.Disturbances caused by this pathological phenomenon, often associated with physical injuries.
vascular dystonia causes
prerequisites for the development and progression of vascular dystonia large number.The most important value belongs to abnormalities in the structure and functioning of certain parts of the autonomic nervous system.These deviations are due to genetic factors and is often traced through the mother of the patient.Other factors in most cases, contribute to the manifestation of laten
To the development of vascular dystonia cause damage to the nervous system in the newborn period, as they are the cause of irregularities in the functioning of the cerebral vessels and the movement of cerebrospinal fluid.Damage to the central nervous system in the perinatal period is expressed emotional lability of the nervous system of the child, the development of acute psychosis and neurosis, reduces stress resistance.All this contributes to the formation of vegetative-vascular dystonia, and also accelerates its development.
Chance of vegetative-vascular dystonia in children often experience emotional upsets (quarrels with parents, conflicts with peers in schools and kindergartens, restrictions on freedom and increased custody, the absence of a parent), increases significantly.An important role in the formation of the disease plays a chronic mental strain.
provoke vascular dystonia capable of neurological disease, the pathology of the endocrine system, allergies, frequent changes in climate conditions, adverse weather conditions, an excessive physical load on the growing organism, or, conversely, decreased motor activity, violations of diet, changes in the body that occur duringpuberty.
vascular dystonia symptoms
for vegetative-vascular dystonia inherent diversity of manifestations.This disease is characterized by the presence of a large number of complaints from different organs and systems, polymorphism of symptoms and symptom that can occur for no apparent reason and disappear without a trace.Such manifestations can be explained by specific features of the current vegetative-vascular dystonia, associated with involvement in the process structures of the hypothalamic region.
Most often this nosology is manifested by pain in the projection of the heart, periodic headaches, dizziness, heart rhythm disturbances, tremor of the upper limbs, trembling body, pasty, arthralgia varying intensity, often large joints ache and pain in the muscles, disorders of the respiratory act.For patients with vascular dystonia is characterized by low-grade fever, fainting and orthostatic collapse.
vascular dystonia symptoms
The most persistent and frequent signs of vegetative-vascular dystonia include cardialgia, autonomic dysfunction, neurotic disorders, vascular dystonia, tachycardia and tachyarrhythmia.
Cardialgia people suffering from vascular dystonia manifested suddenly appearing oppressive pain in the heart.The pain may be of varying intensity and duration.In some cases, it may be of piercing, squeezing character and be quite severe.Autonomic dysfunction is an effect of orthostatic hypotension at sharp change in body position, fainting, feeling of heat in the skin of the face and neck.Neurotic disorders are to occur vegetovascular paroxysm, cardiophobia and headache.Dystonia manifested feeling cold in the upper and lower extremities, pale skin and mucous, feeling of inner trembling.
at VSD may develop and the growing phenomena of dysuria, contributing to the development of urolithiasis.
manifestations of vegetative-vascular dystonia directly depend on what kind of autonomic disorders prevalent in this patient (or vagotonia sympathicotonia).
People with vagotonia complain of reduced efficiency, significant memory loss, fatigue during physical and mental work, constant sleepiness during the day and often insomnia at night, low mood and general emotional background, depression, a long stay in a state of depression, timidity and caution.Such patients do not tolerate cold and heat, stuffy room with a large crowd of people.They have little to eat because of lack of appetite and frequent nausea, but steadily added to the mass, often complain of a feeling of a lump in the throat, pain in the calf muscles, especially at night, abruptly occurring pain in the abdomen.
During the survey we can see that human skin with vagotonia has a marble pattern, visible light akrotsianoz both upper and lower limbs, eyelids pasty because of the constant fluid retention.Dermographism in vegetative-vascular dystonia with a predominance of red vagotonia intense expression.If this disease is characterized by increased secretion of sweat and sebum, and hypersalivation.
As the disease progresses the size of the heart begin to increase due to the reduction of myocardial contractility, often manifested bradyarrhythmia, kardialgiya.An electrocardiogram is determined sinus bradycardia, sometimes - the beats, the interval between the teeth P and Q increases significantly, ST segment shifts of contour lines and increases the amplitude of T waves.
Children sympathicotonia quick-tempered, very sensitive to pain, prone to neuroses and sudden changes in mood, inattentive and temperamental.The most common complaint: the sensation of heat in the body and heart palpitations.Often children with sympathicotonia asthenic body type, are underweight at excellent appetite.Such patients appear pale, dry skin with the feeling, expressed dermographism white.They often complain of numbness in the arms and legs in the morning, say at night low-grade fever, cold extremities, poor tolerance to high temperatures.There are disorders and genitourinary and gastrointestinal tract: increased urine output and frequent atonic constipation.Disorders of the respiratory system and the vestibular apparatus, in the case vagotonia absent.
vascular dystonia in adolescents is characterized by disorders of the cardiovascular system such as increased heart rate and periodic hypertension.The ECG will be visible sinus tachycardia, reducing the distance between the teeth P and Q, the flattening of the tooth T, ST bias wave down.
If in vegetative disorders prevalent disorders of the cardiovascular system, apply the term "neuro-circulatory dystonia".
vascular dystonia types
Species vegetative-vascular dystonia emit large amounts.It should pay particular attention to the classification of the IRR on the nature of the reaction of the cardiovascular system of the patient.So isolated hypertensive, anti-hypertensive and cardiac type of vegetative-vascular dystonia.
For hypertensive type of vegetative-vascular dystonia characterized by complaints of frequent headaches pressing nature, fatigue during physical activity feasible, memory loss, increased heart rate.Systolic blood pressure (the upper limit) can suddenly rise above 140 mm Hg.Art.Raising happens suddenly, it is short and has practically no effect on the state of health of the person.
for cardiac kind of vegetative-vascular dystonia is the most typical complaints of feeling "fading" of the heart, interruptions in his work, tachycardia, sensation of lack of air.The ECG will be visible multiple PVCs, and sinus tachycardia.
Antihypertensive kind of vegetative-vascular dystonia is characterized by a decrease in the upper blood pressure of 80-100 mm Hg.Art.Such a person feels constant fatigue and weakness, decline of vitality.Typical disaniya, fainting in the morning or in stuffy rooms, cold and numbness in the hands and feet, headache, depressed mood and general emotional background, the skin cool and pale.
The pure types are rare, usually diagnosed by mixed vascular dystonia (kardiallno-hypertensive or cardiac-hypertensive).
in vegetative-vascular dystonia are three degrees of severity: mild, moderate and severe.
Mild characterized by undulating course with times of exacerbations and a long period of remission (absence of all symptoms of the disease).Attacks of vegetative-vascular dystonia occur after the emotional turmoil, stress or prolonged mental or physical exertion.Cases, they are rarely (no more than twice a year), are characterized by painful sensations in the heart of weak intensity, light nevrostenicheskimi manifestations.The efficiency of the patient is fully preserved.
to moderate polymorphism characteristic symptoms and symptom, they are more pronounced.The course is also undulating, but prolonged periods of acute (up to several months), and short-term remission.During crises, physical and mental capacity of the patient can be substantially reduced or lost altogether.
Severe vegetative-vascular dystonia is characterized by almost constant pain symptoms in the heart, persistent disturbances in the heart rhythm.In people with type marked hypotensive persistent hypotension, crises often enough runs hard.During the attack the patient feels the fear of death because of the pronounced disruption of the heart.Crises are frequent and are accompanied by a violation of the act of breathing.In times of acute physical performance is almost lost.In special cases, the patient needs the ward mode.
vascular dystonia in children
In most cases, vascular dystonia manifests for the first time in primary and secondary school (6-13 years).The child complains of constant fatigue, shortness of breath on exertion (especially in physical education classes, or while playing in the yard), cold hands and feet, a strong sensation of heat and sweating, aching pain in the heart and in the upper quadrant.
characteristic symptom is a blackout, fainting.In a sick child up to the decreased appetite categorical refusal to take food, he slept restlessly, long sleep and gets up in the morning difficult.
vascular dystonia susceptible babies who are diagnosed fetal hypoxia or birth trauma (especially traumatic brain), which are often sick with colds and children with chronic diseases of the respiratory and cardiovascular system.In addition to all of the above, the development of vegetative-vascular dystonia, frequent stress and emotional stress, insecurity in the family and the team, aggressive environmental conditions, the frequent change of climatic conditions and bad habits.
disease in children occurs in waves, attacks vegetative-vascular dystonia have a clear relationship with reduced resistance to the growing organism (during ARI, influenza, seasonal vitamin deficiencies), a sharp increase in load (school monitoring, training before competition), stressful situations (bad mark,quarrel with friends), with hormonal changes (puberty, hormonal failure).
vascular dystonia in children and adolescents may be of transient, and can become a chronic protracted course.To avoid serious consequences, it is necessary to ensure the child a calm environment within the family and the team, to monitor its workload and time to pass him checkups at local pediatrician.
vascular dystonia treatment
To assign the correct treatment of vegetative-vascular dystonia, which will give the desired result, it is necessary to conduct a thorough diagnosis to exclude a pathology of internal organs.Begin examination authority to which the patient complains.It is best to start with a general survey of clinical analyzes, and after a detailed decoding of samples are assigned to identify the dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, ECG and echocardiography, various respiratory tests.
If there are complaints against the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, it is mandatory to do ultrasound.Echoencephalography and electroencephalography also become superfluous, since these methods will allow to fully appreciate the work of the central nervous system.A very important point is to collect the history of life.It is necessary to find out information about what the ill close relatives, whether they suffered dystonia.Parents vagotonics frequent neurodermatitis, peptic ulcer, asthma, and in sympathotonics - diabetes, hypertension.When vegetative-vascular dystonia are strongly encouraged to consult an otolaryngologist, neurologist, endocrinologist, an ophthalmologist and a psychotherapist.
If the full medical examination of organic pathology was found, and tests on the dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system yielded positive results, give a final diagnosis of "vegetative-vascular dystonia" indicating the type and degree of severity.
Treatment of vascular dystonia long-term, complex, highly individual.When giving guidance and administration of these drugs should take into account the etiology of the disease and the nature of the violations VNS.Basic techniques - non-drug.These include bringing back to normal mode of sleep and wakefulness, reduced physical and mental stress, traumatic removal of all factors, providing regular, full and healthy eating.It is necessary to limit the impact of television and computer games in the emotional sphere.In order to obtain an optimal effect of the treatment should be available to abandon bad habits (tobacco and alcohol).
Widespread use is now received such therapies vegetative-vascular dystonia as hydrotherapy (circular and douches, bubble baths with essential oils, swimming pool), a relaxing massage.From physiotherapy best results showed magnetic and laser puncture, electrostimulation and vacuum therapy.The effectiveness of the treatment method of laser puncture caused by sedative and vasodilator effect, as well as analgesic and antispasmodic.Magnitopunktura well eliminate chronic pain symptoms accompanying vegetative-vascular dystonia moderate and severe degrees of severity, helping to restore the body after prolonged exposure to psycho-emotional factors.
Vacuum therapy is prescribed in the chest area.It has analgesic and sedative effect, helping to restore the disturbed circulation.Especially effective in vegetative-vascular dystonia of hypertensive and hypotensive, cardiac type of moderate and severe degrees of severity.
method of electrical stimulation is indicated for poor circulation upper and lower extremities, accompanied by coldness and numbness of the hands and feet.This method has its contraindications.Electrical stimulation is contraindicated for people with high blood pressure, as it can lead to a hypertensive crisis, a low number of platelets in the blood (the risk of rupture of small blood vessels, the formation of extensive bruising), the presence in the body of large ulcers or wounds, an exacerbation of chronic disease and high body temperature.Contraindication is the active phase of rheumatoid arthritis.