cardiovascular disease - an acute condition of the body, which is caused by the processes of impaired cardiac function in the form of pumping blood and its regulation of vascular inflow to the heart.As a rule, there is a great form of cardiovascular disease and heart failure the left and the right heart.
term "heart failure" includes such states, which are characterized by disorders of the cardiac cycle phases, as a result of causes shock and reduce bulk size of the heart.Additionally, CB can not provide all the necessary requirements tissues.In similar situations, AHF is produced as a result of pulmonary embolism, complete atrioventricular block, myocardial infarction.The chronic form of cardiovascular disease observed in the slow progression of the underlying disease.
term "vascular insufficiency" is due to insufficient blood circulation in the peripheral vessels, which is characterized by low pressure and impaired blood supply to the tissues and / or organs.This co
cardiovascular disease causes
The disease - a special nosological form that reflects the nature of organic heart disease.This causes disruption of the entire body, as defective heart and vascular causes ischemia, and this causes a partial loss of their functions.
The most common cardiovascular failure occurs among elderly people, as well as those who for a long time suffering from heart defects.It is considered the leading cause of the disease, because it is too fast decompensation in SSSBut the major determinants of cardiovascular disease, is increased functional load due to hemodynamic disturbances.
In most cases the causes of the medical condition in the elderly population is a long flowing hypertension, various valvular, coronary artery disease, heart disease of infectious etiology and genetic predisposition.As a rule, all these diseases are characterized by their causes of development, but the factors that cause cardiovascular disease include these nosological forms of nature.
example, the occurrence of this disease on the background of hypertension caused by narrowing of peripheral blood vessels, increasing the contractile force of the heart, hypertrophy of the left ventricle of the heart muscle due to the increased activity of the heart, decompensated hypertrophied myocardium, development of coronary heart disease, the first signs of atherosclerosis, left ventricular dilatation.Thus, all the causes that lead to coronary heart disease, hypertension, atherosclerosis will always treat the precipitating factors of cardiovascular disease.
emergence of fainting, as a form of cardiovascular disease, may contribute to a rapid build-up, for example, young women with asthenic constitution;fear and a long stay in a stuffy room.Predisposing factors of this state can be transferred Infectious diseases, various types of anemia and fatigue.
But for the development of a collapse could be affected severe forms of various diseases, such as sepsis, peritonitis, acute pancreatitis, pneumonia.Poison mushrooms, chemicals and drugs can also be accompanied by a sharp drop in blood pressure.It is also seen after the collapse of injuries electricity and hyperthermia.
cardiovascular disease symptoms
Clinic cardiovascular disease develops of its forms pathological process: DOS (the reason - myocardial infarction) and heart failure.As a rule, these forms are divided into left ventricular heart failure, right ventricular and total.All are characterized by their features and they differ from each other at all stages of the formation of pathological alterations in the heart.Additionally, the disease is called cardiovascular failure because the damaging process is not only the myocardium and blood vessels.
Symptoms of the disease is divided into the clinical manifestations of acute forms of heart failure, chronic heart failure and the insufficiency of the right and left ventricles, and the total lack of form.
In acute cardiovascular failure, there is pain, which is stenokardicheskie character and lasts for more than twenty minutes.The reason that contributes to the development of DOS, it is a heart attack.It is characterized by common symptoms of impaired blood flow in the left ventricle.As a rule, there is a pain in the heart, and there is heaviness in the chest, weak filling pulse, difficulty breathing, cyanosis of the lips, face and extremities.Terrible acts symptom cough due to pulmonary edema.
clinic for chronic cardiovascular disease characterized by the appearance of shortness of breath, weakness, drowsiness, reduced pressure, asthma attacks, heart-type swelling of CCB, dizziness, nausea and vomiting, fainting for a brief period.
Symptoms LZHN is based on a characteristic symptom of shortness of breath that occurs mostly after physical exertion or emotional stress.In addition, it joined the above listed symptoms.In case of shortness of breath at rest, heart failure is characterized by a terminal stage.
To FLL peculiar formation of edema of the BPC.Mostly swellings appear on the legs, and then marked swelling of the abdomen.At the same time it revealed tenderness hepatomegaly as a result of stagnation in the liver and portal vein.It is these attributes contribute to the development of ascites, so because of the high blood pressure fluid enters the peritoneal cavity and begins to accumulate there.Hence the name of the pathological process "congestive heart failure".
Total cardiovascular failure has all the hallmarks LZHN and FLL.This can be explained by the fact that the syndrome edema joins shortness of breath, and signs, characterized by pulmonary edema, weakness and dizziness.
Basically, heart failure is characterized by three degrees of the pathological process.
The first degree is marked fatigue, rapid heartbeat, and sleep disturbance.Also, the first signs of labored breathing and rapid pulse, after some physical movements.
When the second degree of cardiovascular disease symptoms to the first degree joins irritability, discomfort in the heart, shortness of breath becomes stronger and occurs even at the time of the call.
At the third degree the intensity of early symptoms is even stronger, and the marked objective signs.As a rule, swollen legs in the evening, is developing hepatomegaly, decreased urine output, it found traces of protein, urate, and notes with a characteristic nocturia diuresis at night.Later edema spread throughout the body, there is hydrothorax, ascites and hydropericardium, stagnation of blood in the vessels of the lungs with typical rales, cough with bloody sputum, in some cases.Also, urine output drops sharply, causing suburemicheskoe condition, the liver and causes soreness goes down the abdomen, skin color has subikterichesky formed bloating, and constipation alternating with diarrhea.
On physical examination diagnosed heart expanded the boundaries of its cavities, but the noise at the same time weaken.It is also noted beats and ciliary arrhythmia character, heart lung in the form of hemoptysis, slight fever, muted percussion sound over the area light and transient noise pleural friction.Patients with symptoms found in bed half upright position (orthopnea).
cardiovascular disease in children
This condition in children is characterized by impaired blood flow by two factors: decreased ability of the heart muscle to reduce the (heart failure) and the weakening of the voltage of the peripheral blood vessels.It was the last state and represents cardiovascular failure.It is more common in a healthy child in isolation while asimpatikotonii, as well as the primary character of the true prevalence of the parasympathetic part of the autonomic central nervous system.However, manifestations of cardiovascular disease may have a secondary character and develop as a result of various infections, pathological processes of the endocrine system, diseases of infectious etiology with chronic.
Leading clinical signs of cardiovascular disease in children include: pallor with dizziness and vaso-vagal syncope.For heart failure is characterized by shortness of breath, tachycardia, hepatomegaly, peripheral edema, congestion, with the borders of the heart expanded with loud colors and broken heart contractile function of the myocardium.Thus, the combination of both forms of circulatory failure, and determine a characteristic state as cardiovascular disease.
Such a condition in children caused by cerebral blood flow in the heart and in the periphery as a result of the weakening of the heart muscle to contract.At the same time the heart is unable to translate the flow of blood from the veins to a normal cardiac output.This fact is the basis of all clinical symptoms of heart failure, which in children is expressed in two forms: acute and chronic.Children AHF develops as a consequence of myocardial, valvular, left ventricular wall rupture, as well as complicating heart failure.
The reasons for the development of children cardiovascular disease include cardiac malformations with congenital etiology (newborns), myocarditis with early and late manifestation (infancy), acquired valvular nature, an acute form of myocarditis.
cardiovascular disease in children classified in the left ventricular and right ventricular form of defeat.However, it is often possible to meet total (simultaneous violation) CH.Furthermore, the three stages of the disease involves destruction.When the first notes a hidden form of pathology is detected only if the physical action.In the second - pronounced stagnation in the IWC and (or) in the BPC, is characterized by symptoms alone.At the second stage (A) is disturbed hemodynamics quite weak in any of the CC, and at the second stage (B) there is a profound violation of hemodynamic process involving both communities (ICCs and BPC).The third stage of cardiovascular disease in children is manifested degenerative changes in many organs, thus causing severe hemodynamic changes in metabolism and irreversible pathology in tissues and organs.
General Hospital cardiovascular disease in children consists of the appearance of shortness of breath, at first during exercise, then it appears at absolute rest and is enhanced by changing the child's body, or a conversation.Breathing begins hindered if there is concomitant heart disease, even if the horizontal position.Thus, such children with this anomaly of the situation such as orthopnea, they in such a state is much safer and easier.In addition, children with this diagnosis are subject to fatigue, they are very weak and have disturbed sleep.Then joins coughing, cyanosis, syncope, and may even collapse.
cardiovascular disease treatment
Effective treatment of such diseases as heart failure must be strict adherence to a special diet with restriction of salt, and sometimes even its exclusion and receiving medications strictly under the scheme prescribed by the treating physician.The first diet should contain low amounts of Na and high - K. In addition, we recommend the use of mostly fruits, vegetables and milk.Meals should be taken five times a restriction of salt and fluid to drink no more than a liter.As a rule, a significant amount of potassium is in a banana, dried apricots, raisins and baked potatoes.
for medical treatment of cardiovascular disease are used drugs that help strengthen the heart muscle and reduce the workload of the heart.Thus, they reduce venous return and reduce resistance to blood ejection.To enhance myocardial contractility prescribed cardiac glycosides.For this purpose, intravenous or strophanthin Korglikon as bolus and infusion.
After decreases symptoms of cardiovascular insufficiency is used the preformed treatment of disease using digitoxin, Izolanida, Digoxin individual appointment with a dose of drugs.
In addition, ACE inhibitors (Prestarium, Fazinopril, captopril, Enalopril, lisinopril), angiotensin blocking the enzyme.At intolerance of these drugs prescribed isosorbide, dinitrate and hydralazine.Sometimes using Nitroglycerine or analogues of prolonged action.
To resolve gipergidrotatsii cell is applied increased renal excretion of sodium by using diuretics.It uses diuretics different mechanism of action, and sometimes they even combine to produce a rapid effect.As a rule, prescribed Furosemide, but in order to keep the potassium in the body is used Veroshpiron, amiloride, and thiazide diuretics group - Oksodolin, Arifon, Hypothiazid, Klopamid.To correct the potassium in the body using a solution of KCl, and Panangin "Sanasol."
radical and substantial solution to the issue, based on the cardiovascular failure, is to carry out surgery for a heart transplant.At present, the number of patients who have undergone this operation, estimated at several thousand worldwide.Heart transplantation is used when no other options to preserve the life of the patient.However, there are contraindications to conduct this operation.In this group of patients get people: After seventy years;suffering irreversible damage to the lungs, kidneys and liver;with severe diseases of the brain and peripheral arteries;with active infection;tumors of uncertain prognosis and nature of mental pathologies.
cardiovascular disease first aid
a set of measures, which are first aid, aimed at reduction processes, as well as to preserve the life of a man during an episode of cardiovascular disease.It is this assistance can be characterized as mutual aid and self-help, provided that there is no one nearby or the patient's condition allows him to spend most of these activities before the arrival of doctors.On how quickly and correctly will be given first aid in cardiovascular failure, largely depends on the patient's life.
To begin, it is important to evaluate the patient's condition and determine what happened to him, and then proceed to provide the necessary relief measures.
during syncope in a patient with cardiovascular insufficiency mind can be clouded or completely lost, he can feel the whirling head and ringing in the ears, and then the nausea and increased peristalsis.OBJECTIVE: pale skin, cold extremities, dilated pupils, reactions to light alive, pulse weak filling, reduced pressure, and breathing is shallow (duration - 10-30 seconds or two minutes, depending on the cause).
Tactics assist in cardiovascular disease is: First, the patient must be laid on his back and a few lower his head;Second, open collar and to ensure access of air;Third, bring a fan-like cotton wool with ammonia to his nose and then spray your face with cold water.