Sinus tachycardia - a certain condition characterized by rapid heart rate of more than ninety, rarely up to 130 beats per minute.In essence, this cellular response CA physiological nature on endogenous or exogenous influences, which include physical stress, mental tension, anger, pain, anxiety, joy, fever, infection, anemia, and others.
Sinus tachycardia develops as a consequence of the automatic increase sinus (CS), when there is increased activity sympathoadrenal and lowered the tone of the vagus nerve nature when exposed to cells SU nicotine, alcohol, and a combination of all these factors.
Typically, sinus tachycardia is more common in people with a healthy heart, but in the presence of vegetative-vascular dystonia.In addition, it refers to the manifestation of acute and chronic forms of heart failure, as this is the only important physiological mechanism that is involved in the process of increasing cardiac output.
Sinus tachycardia (Bainbridge reflex) is caused by i
to sinus tachycardia is characterized by the preservation of sensitivity to the effects of SU neuro-vegetative nature.Sinus reactions may occur when changing the position of the body, a deep breath, the introduction of atropine sulfate, Valsalva maneuver, etc.
Sinus tachycardia causes
Such a state, in the form of more frequent heart rhythm found in all age groups and mainly in the health of their half, and among those who have a presence in the heart and other diseases.
The formation of sinus tachycardia is directly influenced by heart (intracardiac) and extracardiac (extracardiac) causal factors.
Patients who suffer from diseases of SSS, the occurrence of sinus tachycardia is one of the early symptoms of heart failure or left ventricular dysfunction.The reasons include the nature of the intracardiac DOS and chronic heart failure, myocardial infarction, myocarditis various etiologies, angina in severe form, heart defects, cardio, endocarditis, a bacterial origin, cardiomyopathy and pericarditis.
But the causes of sinus tachycardia extracardiac nature are different types of loads, such as emotional and physical, and genetic predisposition.In addition, most arrhythmia neurogenic character formed as a result primarily of the developing disturbances in the brain and the autonomic nervous system (cardiopsychoneurosis, neuroses and psychoses affective properties).Basically neurogenic form of the disease state affect the younger generation, who celebrated labile nervous system.
Specific etiologic factors are the increased frequency of heart rate disorders of the endocrine system in the form of increased formation of adrenaline in the background pheochromocytoma, thyrotoxicosis;anemia, fainting, sudden pressure drop, shock, pain attacks, and hypoxia.
In some cases this heart rate acceleration can be caused by fever in the background of infections and inflammations such as sepsis, sore throat, tuberculosis and pneumonia.Thus, when the temperature rises by one degree, heart rate can be increased to ten or fifteen strokes per minute in a child and up to eight or nine - an adult.
There is also a toxic drug and sinus tachycardia, in which the reasons for its occurrence are considered drugs and chemicals resulting impact on the operation of the sinus node.Among them are: epinephrine, norepinephrine, diuretics, atropine, antihypertensive drugs, Eufillin, thyroid stimulating hormone, corticosteroids;coffee, tea, alcohol, nitrates, nicotine.However, some kind of substance does not have a direct impact on the SU, so reflex tachycardia develops as a consequence of increasing the tone of the sympathetic nervous system.
Sometimes HR is adequate and inadequate form.Their causes are poorly understood, as they are very rare.Suggest that they develop as a result of the primary lesion SU.
Sinus tachycardia symptoms
Symptoms of sinus tachycardia is different from other soft enough occurrence of tachycardia, which may be characterized by a painting without a complaint from the patient.In rare cases, the patient feels some discomfort with the appearance in his heartbeat and fatigue.
to diagnose sinus tachycardia, first, to begin to count the pulse, which at this pathology should be over one hundred beats per minute, and secondly, to conduct an ECG study.When mild or moderate form, characterized by functional disorders, the treatment of sinus tachycardia usually is not appointed.
But still there are minor signs of a quickening heart rate, to be brought to the attention of a survey to exclude or confirm the existing pathology, which provoked an accelerated heartbeat.
characteristic clinical symptoms of sinus tachycardia is an increase in heart rate over a hundred beats per minute, even in a totally peaceful state, although the heart rate at night may drop to normal eighty strokes.
second symptom that causes anxiety and discomfort, is considered a strong heartbeat in the chest, which is felt by the patient.In some cases, a patient with this medical condition may feel dizzy, and then syncope occurs (the patient loses consciousness).
In addition, an accelerated heart rate is characterized by the appearance of pain in the chest periodic nature, which are sometimes quite harsh and interfere with a person to breathe, so the patient feels tightness in the chest.In the future, there is shortness of breath, which produces a state of anxiety.The patient feels tired, can not tolerate exercise and very worried for his life.
Typically, attacks are strong heartbeat, a sudden start and stop abruptly.Also, when a person has sinus tachycardia may be nausea due to the lack of fresh air.If this condition is caused by physiological factors, the need to eliminate them, and the heart rate itself back to normal.But when the heart or other pathologies provoke such a state, you need medical help to prevent the worsening of the underlying disease.
Basically, first bout of sinus tachycardia as a result of any etiological factors, it is necessary to calm down, and then take any drug sedation and choose for themselves a comfortable position before the termination of the main symptoms (tachycardia).
Sinus tachycardia in children
This condition is considered today quite common and characteristic manifestation of an accelerated sinus rhythm in children and seen an increase in heart rate, but the specific deviations from normal operation it is not observed.In children, signs of more frequent heart rate may develop in the event of overvoltage of any kind, both emotional and physical.That is why there is an automatic increase in the sinoatrial node (SA).Newborns exposed to a diagnosed case of exceeding the heart rate more than one hundred and sixty beats per minute.Sinus tachycardia observed in almost 40% of children.
main cause of this condition in just born children are anemia, acidosis, hypoglycemia and causes physiological nature as a physical examination, anxiety, changing mat, pain attacks, overheating, as well as pathological processes in SSS-relatedheart failure.This lightweight form of the condition itself generally goes to the first year of life, without any medical intervention.
suspicion of sinus rhythm changes in children may be the heart rate of one hundred beats per minute to one hundred and sixty.However, such fluctuations are not taken into account if they arise at the time of fever the child after intensive physical exercise, prolonged and persistent walking, while in the area where hard to breathe due to the fact that there can be stuffy and aftersuffering stress.In addition, if the heart rate for five minutes came to the normal range, and it is not accompanied by fainting, shortness of breath, pain in the heart, then the child is considered quite healthy.
Sinus tachycardia adolescents often develops as a consequence of endocrine changes, anemia, stress, physical and emotional exhaustion.Typically, these causal factors of the disease in children and adolescents is an urgent need to eliminate to avoid pathological tachycardia.It is also necessary to understand that this condition in children can be very dangerous in the future cause of vascular dystonia of hypertensive type, and also lead to heart disease such as heart failure.
Thus, it is very important if you have symptoms of this disease closely monitor these children in order to prevent its aggravation.Although also need to consider that this condition can be a child's physiological phenomenon caused by immature cardiovascular system.
But, nevertheless, the appearance of the children attack sinus tachycardia necessary to create fresh air, free from hindering the clothes the child's neck, put something cooling on the forehead and to the baby all the necessary for its calm.Then seek medical advice and conduct a thorough examination to determine the causes of palpitations heartbeat.
Sinus tachycardia in pregnant
is now quite difficult to find a pregnant woman, which will fully meet all the requirements of a doctor of their state of health, as the period of pregnancy is often accompanied by various symptoms of bad character.Firstly, they do not directly threaten the health of the pregnant woman, and secondly - not always well perceived, and at some point even a very poorly tolerated.
It is to this state and is sinus tachycardia during pregnancy, which is characterized by rapid heart rate and can occur in these pregnant women who do not even have in the presence of pathological heart disease.
its causes can be different factors that provoke heart rate unchanged spreading of excitation in conduction system of a particular organ.It is characterized by physiological and occurrence of sinus tachycardia in pregnant women.These reasons include: the overall restructuring of the entire system of the female body during pregnancy under the influence of hormones.As well as increasing the load on the CN system;intensive work somatic organs, which are designed to meet the growing needs of the woman and her unborn child, in this case, the fetus;changes associated with the location of some of the bodies and their compression by increasing the uterus.
gynecologist can diagnose the state of sinus tachycardia during pregnancy as a physiological, only after a full and comprehensive survey, which does not give positive results in the abnormal disease, and acute or chronic blood loss, uncontrollable vomiting, disorders of water and electrolyte metabolism contributingincrease the burden on SSSIn addition, even a small low-grade fever may provoke frequent heartbeat in pregnant women, which in this case acts as a compensatory reaction, and it is inherent in any organism.
Thus, sinus tachycardia may be considered exactly the condition in pregnancy, when the heart rate becomes the limit of one hundred beats per minute.That is why the diagnosis of sinus rhythm acceleration of a pregnant woman, the important point is considered to conduct a comprehensive examination, identify its causes and advise pregnant have specialists such as a cardiologist, vascular surgeon, pulmonologist, endocrinologist (if necessary).This is particularly important for pregnant women with a history of previous illnesses of the cardiovascular system.
It is very important to pay attention not only on the symptoms of this condition, which accompanies it, but also on the duration of pregnancy.The smaller the gestation of the fetus, the more attention should be given to the emerging frequent heart rhythm.But the later stages of pregnancy are all prerequisites for the emergence of physiological sinus tachycardia due to urging of the heart by increasing the aperture size of the fetus.At this point, it has been a slight irritation of the atria, which is the pacemaker and heart rate.Therefore, a small heart rate during pregnancy - this is a normal compensatory phenomenon, in which the body of the pregnant and her fetus gets an increased need for nutrients and oxygen.Thus, increased heart rate as a heart rate of 110-115 bpm.min, detected in the 3rd trimester, will refer to the normal state and in this case there is no need to prescribe treatment.
also sinus tachycardia may occur when exposed to more physical activities, as a mechanism of adaptive response of the body.Upon termination load, heart rate should be at the health of pregnant women bounce back, and that's enough for a little rest.In the opposite case, when the condition of the pregnant woman during an attack of sinus tachycardia is not normal, it requires immediate hospitalization and expert advice to the Department of Cardiology, with further examination.
When diagnosing pregnant with symptoms of sinus tachycardia apply mandatory components search.The first is examined by a gynecologist in the finding of a pregnancy and its duration, as well as gynecological pathology that may accompany it.Then appointed to perform laboratory testing of clinical and biochemical analyzes, by which determine the amount of hemoglobin and red blood cells, as in anemia can increase heart rate, even if it will not have cardiovascular disease.
Also be sure to appoint analysis on thyroid hormones.Another important aspect is the diagnostic electrocardiogram, which explores the heart rhythm and determines the type of tachycardia, in this case the sinus.Later appointed consultation on the testimony or other confirmation of pathology at the cardiologist, endocrinologist and others. In severe cases, apply cardiac echocardiography and Doppler - with available suspected of having heart diseases.
condition SSSpregnant must be assessed only by the attending physician, who after a certain survey appoint a special treatment to eliminate the cause of sinus tachycardia.
In that case, if the cause palpitations heart rate are changes in the normal functioning of the nervous system, the doctor assigns sedatives herbal, multivitamins containing the required amount of iodine, phosphorus, sodium, iron and others. Such kind of therapeutic treatment has a positive effect on the process electrolytemetabolism in pregnant and safely removes palpitations heartbeat.But if, during the examination the doctor finds abnormalities of the heart, thyroid or other organs, which became the cause of sinus tachycardia in pregnancy, it is assigned to an appropriate treatment possible in the pregnancy a woman.