Tachycardia - a pathological acceleration of the heart rate from ninety beats per minute.As a sign of disease in the event of a tachycardia is considered dormant.It is both a consequence of diseases of various regulatory systems and consequence of autoregulatory function of the heart muscle, namely pacemakers.
tachycardia condition causes a number of unpleasant feelings: anxiety, feeling part of a strong heartbeats, shortness of breath at rest, redness of the skin, sweating, hot flushes, and dizziness.In addition to these subjective sensations there is objective evidence that a number of disorders of organs and systems such as central and peripheral nervous system, organs of vision, kidney and gastrointestinal tract.
Depending on the characteristics of pathologically accelerated heart rate, tachycardia can be divided into sinus, ventricular fibrillation and paroxysmal.
Sinus tachycardia is characterized by a normal rhythm generated sino-atrial node.That is the rhythm in qualita
paroxysmal tachycardia divided into atrial, ventricular and nodal.Characteristic signs of tachycardia (paroxysmal) is a sudden onset and completion of the attack.As well as more rapid heartbeat than with sinus (149-299 beats per minute).
Ventricular fibrillation may be accompanied by an extensive myocardial infarction, shock states, damage to the nervous system or severe poisoning dangerous poisons.From her sinus tachycardia rhythm is uneven - very fast (300-490 bpm) disorderly contraction of the ventricles.Often such tachycardia is preceded by a complete cardiac arrest.
fibrillation is characterized by dizziness, which goes into fainting, tonic convulsions, dilated pupils, relaxation of sphincters.Late fibrillation very high mortality rate.
Tachycardia can clearly hinder the normal functioning of the cardiovascular system.All due to the fact that often the beating heart does not have time to be filled with a sufficient amount of blood, and this, in turn, creates unfavorable conditions for the blood supply to vital organs and systems.Lack of blood supply
primarily feel the ventricles of the heart, which adversely affects the function of the heart muscle.Since the ventricles eject small volumes of blood, reduced systemic blood pressure, which affects the entire body.Under reduced pressure, taking into account palpitations, people feel very sick, that may worsen when the habitual physical activity.Often this condition occurs along with other autonomic disorders, which greatly exacerbates the condition of the person, it causes fear of death, a strong decrease in efficiency.
tolerate frequent bouts of tachycardia is difficult, and in a survey to be registered requires a lot of time.For the "on demand" tachycardia does not occur.
Usually people come to the hospital with concomitant diseases of the heart or nervous system who complain mainly on heart palpitations and feeling unwell.There are also cases when entering the patient complains of a completely unrelated to heart ailments, and later found out that he had persistent or paroxysmal tachycardia.There are people that such a state is not concerned.
Tachycardia as a symptom of many diseases of the cardiovascular, nervous and endocrine systems must be perceived by physicians as a signal for a full examination.After all, the consequences of the wrong time to diagnose the disease can be quite severe.
tachycardia reasons both physiological and pathological can be set.
may experience tachycardia with organic lesions of the nervous and humoral regulation of the body's systems.For example, when a tumor of the adrenal gland (pheochromocytoma) may sharply and extremely strong increased heart rate and increased blood pressure.It is caused by increased production of catecholamines (regulatory hormones), especially adrenaline.
When tumors of the pituitary gland and hypothalamus (secretes hormones that stimulate or inhibit the operation of all systems of the body) are also possible comprehensive changes in cardiac activity.
One of the main causes of tachycardia can be considered as hypoxia.Hypoxia - a lack of saturation of the organs or tissues of oxygen.That is insufficient oxygen in the arterial blood.Hypoxia can occur in poorly ventilated areas, in mountain areas, on public transportation.Tachycardia caused by a hypoxia, is usually held after the normalization of the level of oxygen in the inspired air.
If hypoxia is caused by internal factors, the tachycardia may persist for a long time, regardless of external conditions.The reason for this may be a pulmonary pathology, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, professional diseases related to the inhalation of foreign particles of dust in large quantities (silicosis, anthracosis, talcosis, antrako-silicosis, asbestosis).Even chronic diseases such as allergic rhinitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis can cause persistent hypoxia, which leads to cardiac events.
sustained reduction in blood pressure leading to tachycardia.Palpitations used as a protective compensatory mechanism.Causes of hypotension can be very diverse.For example, when vegetative vascular disorders or in recovery from blood loss.Hypotension may occur as a result of hormonal regulation in diseases of the thyroid, adrenal, pituitary.
hypotension may also exist as an independent disease.And do not forget about the possible genetic predisposition to low blood pressure that sometimes brings to a standstill even experienced diagnosticians.Secondary
same cause hypotension - a disease that violate regulatory activity centers or mechanically (thrombosis, tumor) leads to a compensatory reduction in pressure.
Also hypotension tachycardia can provoke excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages.The reaction to them is strictly individual, because for the same amount of drunk alcohol, one person can increase the heart rate and body temperature, while the other can raise blood pressure and reduce the number of heart beats per minute.
Long-term use of alcohol can lead to portal hypertension, which is inevitably combined with tachycardia.
palpitations are usually accompanied ostroprotekayuschih infection.The higher the body temperature rises, the more accelerated the work of the heart.Physiologically, it is due to the tendency of the organism "cool" the blood during the temperature rise.That is, when the blood runs faster on large and small circulation, slows down the process of raising the temperature of the body.
Another cause tachycardia may be considered anemia.Anemia - a syndrome which is based on reduction of the amount of hemoglobin in the blood, or lack of uniform units, conveying it - erythrocytes.The causes of anemia are many and often it is considered as a symptom of hard proceeding disease.
Tachycardia with anemia caused by the desire to meet the body's tissue oxygen demand quantitative method that is usually delivered to the tissues of the blood, insufficient supply of hemoglobin.This is a natural compensatory mechanism and detection of such complex symptoms should immediately seek out and eliminate the cause of anemia, because the body uses energy reserves.
Scientists have proved that drinking beverages containing caffeine (black tea, coffee, energy drinks), not only stimulates brain activity, invigorates and gives stamina, but also adversely affects the cardiovascular system, accelerate the heart rate, increases bloodpressure, accelerates the natural excretion of calcium from the body.Of course, these effects occur at regular and excessive consumption of caffeine.With part of the proceeds to the body, it causes a kind of addictive, causing the creation of additional receptors on cells.This leads to the fact that the person to improve the vitality necessary to have not two, but five or seven cups of strong tea or coffee.
Another bad habit, a very negative impact on cardiac function, is smoking.Examples of the effects of nicotine on the body - the destruction of blood vessels, reduced brain activity carcinogen lips, tongue, larynx, tonsils, trachea, bronchi and lungs.
After each smoked cigarette a man quickens the heartbeat of the fact that the body tries to get rid as soon as possible from the poison in the blood, which is nicotine.
Other drugs also affect the heart muscle due to various pathological mechanisms causing her to fall more often.Especially strong is the impact expressed in stimulants such as cocaine, amphetamine, pervintin.
Stressful situations and being in an aggressive team and forcing the heart to beat more often than necessary.Long-term conflicts lingering depression cause complications of the cardiovascular system.These people complain about the periodic attacks of tachycardia, angina, against the backdrop of a depressed mood and depressing thoughts.
Tachycardia may occur by the mechanism of negative feedback as a result of blood loss or severe dehydration.
Dehydration can occur when food poisoning is not the first freshness or kidney disease, that is, as a result of prolonged vomiting and diarrhea and diuresis.
If poisoning drugs lily of the valley and other glycosides may occur tachycardia and arrhythmia, which is very difficult to treat.
The most common attack of tachycardia is developing very quickly and without warning.A person may not even notice it up until your heart rate reaches very high figures.The vast majority of people have felt a certain malaise at 110 beats per minute.Feeling frightening heart does not concentrate at work, and at the slightest exertion causes severe shortness of breath and dizziness.
symptoms objectively determined by measuring the frequency and intensity of pulsation of vessels on the wrists and carotid arteries in the neck.In addition to feeling the pulse palpation with a strong tachycardia ripple visible to the naked eye.This surge in the carotid arteries, for example, normally invisible.This phenomenon is called the "dance of the carotid."
plays an important role auscultation listening to heart sounds and heart rate at the wrists at the same time.Such a study is conducted to determine the nature and completeness of the blood flow.Characteristic symptom is tachycardia "pendulum rhythm" (although some authors compare with a metronome) - virtually indistinguishable first and second tones.
Another symptom of tachycardia is the humidity of the skin, sweating even in the absence of physical activity in a normally ventilated room.This is due to the need to speed up the exchange of water through the skin, since the kidneys can not function properly with accelerated blood flow.
for ventricular tachycardia characteristic symptom is the frequency of heart beats per minute from 149 to 189, and for supraventricular forms - 190-240.
also at high numbers of palpitation of the heart muscle increases the need for oxygen and a particular energy source ATP.In people with coronary heart disease, tachycardia may aggravate the disease and myocardial infarction complicated.
tachycardia often occurs in conjunction with other symptoms such as angina.
Angina - an attack of heart pain that occurs suddenly and passing.Pain may be very diverse in nature: knife-, pressing spilled.Often it spreads to the left arm, left subscapular region or left upper quadrant.Pain worsens the moral condition of a person can cause great fear that provoke strengthening of tachycardia (due to release of adrenaline).
to determine the severity of the condition and possible complications of using a time-tested method of electrocardiography.Experienced specialist in electrocardiogram readings can determine where in the myocardium occurs pathological center field.Also, the ECG can be seen early or late symptoms of myocardial necrosis.
Tachycardia in children
Tachycardia in children has several features.Almost always - if the child does not have heart defects or malformations prognosis is favorable.It is typical for children palpitations due to the small size of the heart, the small diameter of the main vessels, as well as due to the increased needs of all tissues and organs of oxygen (growing body requires more nutrients and energy).
for children of different ages are characterized by various indicators of heart rate.For example, children on the 12th day of the normal number of heart beats per minute of about 140. But the teenager twelve years this figure in a rate of about 80 beats / min.
tachycardia in children can be caused by autonomic-vascular dystonia.This disease has a complicated set of syndromes and different shapes.In addition, this disease does not have a malignant form and Forecast (without concomitant diseases) is always favorable.
signs of tachycardia in children do not differ from those of adults.Perhaps some children younger age group is not clear, he explained to their concerns.In the diagnosis in such cases, the important role played by objective research and instrumental methods (ECG, echocardiography).
Older children complain of heart palpitations, shortness of breath, chest pain, darkening of the eyes, sweating.Often, this condition causes a child's fear or even hysteria.But these factors are known to enhance only the tachycardia.
When combined with tachycardia, and VSD in adolescence may experience syncope (fainting or predobmorok).
mainly tachycardia in children is considered as a passing state or hormonal adjustment feature.If the cardiologist after the test showed no cardiac or other related pathologies, in most cases this symptom does not need further treatment.
necessary to follow the recommendations of a pediatrician and cardiologist.For example, exercise stress.Completely deprive a child the joy to be active with the other children do not, and to accustom to a certain regime is necessary.
should also deal with physical inactivity and obesity, as these factors increase the burden on the heart muscle and in the future, it can greatly affect health.
Quite often, when a person from the attacks of tachycardia had detected high blood pressure.Even slightly elevated blood pressure numbers in some people can cause severe headaches, pain in the heart, dizziness, blurred vision.
In the event of such a complex symptoms should consult a doctor, that after all the necessary clinical and functional tests, he has appointed the necessary drugs for the relief and prevention of attacks.
Because these symptoms can lead to a very dangerous complications, which are easier to prevent than to treat.Examples of these complications can be regarded as myocardial infarction, stroke or cerebral infarction, ischemic phenomenon of internal organs (usually kidney).