Heart diseases



beats photo Extrasystoles - a kind of rhythmic disturbances of the heart, which is manifested in the extraordinary reduction of one or more chambers of the heart.This phenomenon is caused by excessive and untimely generation of an electrical pulse specific structures of the myocardium - pacemakers.

Excessive electrical pulse may occur in the ventricles, atria or the atrioventricular node.

Extrasystoles in the heart can be found in the in-depth examination of the multitude of people who do not suffer from diseases of the cardiovascular system.Periodic appearance of early contractions of the heart can occur in completely healthy people after exposure to certain factors: consumption of beverages containing caffeine or alcohol, severe stress, physical activity, stress conjugate or lack of sleep.

Besides beats may occur in people of any age and gender.In adolescents, they are connected with the restructuring of hormonal levels in the elderly can be a cause of coronary heart disease.And midd

le-aged people thus can manifest disease of the connective tissue disease or cancer.

Extrasystoles distinguished by the location of the hearth, generating extra pulses, as well as quantitative and qualitative characteristics.

On localization of distinguished sinus, premature atrial, ventricular, supraventricular and match.

There are many classifications of narrowly focused, the most easy to understand can be considered gradation Lown - Wolf.It includes several degrees, separated by variables and ECG signs.The first category of this classification corresponds to a single, similar in morphology beats, the number of which shall not exceed thirty per hour.The next category is given under the same beats of a single hearth, but in larger quantities.The third type - it beats a different origin.Group 4 "a" and 4 "b" include repeated and frequent forms of premature beats.The last group is the most dangerous to health and can cause severe complications leading to death - atrial flutter, or ventricular fibrillation.

Yet doctors are of the opinion that the category of premature beats is not as important for predicting the outcome of the underlying disease.Dangerous themselves consequences of certain diseases, the symptoms of which are the various kinds of premature beats.


emergence of PVCs in most people causes virtually no discomfort.If anyone says, there is no special significance attached to the symptoms.Basically it is a feeling too strong heart beat in the chest, more tangible than simply the heartbeat.Most often people refer to the phenomenon of "disruption".There is a kind of premature beats of the pulse propagation along the myocardium only in the ventricles before the next normal contraction.

reasons for PVCs are previously undiagnosed heart disease.For example, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, hypertension, myocardial infarction.

There are several common reasons that can cause extrasystoles - frequent stressful situations, which are accompanied by prolonged emotional stress, depression, alcohol abuse, smoking, excessive consumption of coffee, as well as the use of drugs as a stimulant (cocaine, amphetamine, pervintin).

To clarify the place of occurrence of the pulse, which leads to the beats, using electrocardiography.You can remove the figures several times a day stationary device, but is considered to be more informative method of daily monitoring of the heart specific mobile device.Researched installed sensors for the reading of the electrical activity of the heart and within days he leads an ordinary life for him.A day later the doctor removes the device and decrypts the testimony.This method can specify what has caused the occurrence of premature beats, as well as to clarify their localization and character.

supraventricular arrhythmias

supraventricular arrhythmias occur if the focus of automatism is in the atrio-ventricular node.

Symptoms of supraventricular arrhythmias are similar, differing only on the cardiogram and further examination.Often, people experiencing periodic beats, feel the sinking of the heart followed amplified punch (or several strokes).After that the rhythm is restored.Depending on the severity of the underlying disease, the symptoms of which are the beats, changing the frequency of occurrence of such symptoms during the day.

seen on the electrocardiogram characteristic changes: a negative or deformed P-wave that occurs in time.And after a pause wave premature beats, that is involuntary loss of one or more complexes of contraction of the heart.This delay is caused by excessive electrical pulses, after which the heart muscle does not have time to fully recover and get to a consistent, rhythmic work.

some patients supraventricular arrhythmias may be accompanied by partial or complete right bundle branch block (specific node in the heart muscle, which distributes the electrical impulses throughout the myocardium in a specific sequence).

reasons supraventricular arrhythmias can be cardiac origin or have exocardiac character.Diseases of the heart that can cause such premature beats, are often chronic and indolent character.For example, coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries of the heart, cardiomyopathy, myocardial pericarditis.

People with comorbidity of heart beats supraventricular (supraventricular) can be a starting step in a series of life-threatening arrhythmias: atrial flutter, ventricular fibrillation or cardiac arrest spontaneous.

possibility of such dangerous conditions must always be taken into account if the ECG were recorded supraventricular arrhythmias, it should conduct a more in-depth examination in the cardiology hospital.

The hospital carried out the specific cardiology studies at rest and during dynamic loading.This makes it possible to determine which factor in this patient leads to premature beats and other arrhythmias.

Solo beats

Solo beats are the result of some extraordinary pulse of normal or pathological focus excitation.Usually solitary beats do not have any regular alternation of normal complexes QRS.

This type of premature beats common in completely healthy people.According to foreign scientists in more than 58% of men older than 50 years are found solitary beats at rest.In the absence of diseases of the cardiovascular system, this phenomenon does not pose any danger to life and health.And if a man for a long time have not received routine examinations, but there are single ECG beats, it should conduct a thorough further examination for a hidden disease.

avoid manifestations single extrasystoles doctors recommend limiting the use of strong tea and coffee, as well as to be careful with bad habits.

In addition, single beats can have different settings on the electrocardiogram, there are equally often both at rest and during exercise.

If the focus of excessive excitation is not carried out to the existing at that time, pacemaker, the SA node is not recharged, and this means that after the arrythmia followed by a compensatory pause.This pause is a manifestation of the protective function of the myocardium, because this protection is primarily aimed at the prevention of explicit congestion for the heart.

In the opposite case, when after a single PVCs should not be full or partial compensatory pauses, beats considered intercalary.

Very often, the disease of the cardiovascular system, which causes the beats remain without proper treatment.This leads to a chronic process and the development of mechanisms of decompensation (a condition where the body can no longer from its own resources to offset the effects of the disease).Decompensation of heart disease develops very slowly.Symptoms generally remain unchanged, but their severity increases significantly.For example, single beats can turn into multiple.They, in turn, have a tangible manifestation.

In addition, multiple beats tend to develop precise sequences and patterns when prompted.

Episodes extrasystoles can alternate with a normal rhythm.Based on the interlace period, they have corresponding names.Since premature beat that occurs after three normal cycles, called quadrigemini, the one that comes after two normal contractions of the heart chambers - trigeminy.If the beats alternate with the normal rhythm of the heart rate, it bigeminy.

In some cases, PVCs follow one another, and if more than three such episodes in a row, then this indicates an unstable ventricular tachycardia.This condition can cause ventricular fibrillation.

Extrasystoles reasons

Extrasystoles are essentially a manifestation of diseases of various organs and systems.Most of all - it's heart disease, endocrine glands, and various nervous system, stress and mental disorders.

to heart disease, which manifest extrasystoles include coronary heart disease, cardiosclerosis, rheumatic infarction, myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, hypertrophy of the heart, simple obesity, heart amyloidosis, and atherosclerosis.

Endocrine disorders provoke premature beats: hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism (thyroid disease), malfunction of the hypothalamus and pituitary (hormone-producing tumor or squeezing), diseases of the adrenal glands (pheochromocytoma, Cushing's disease), diabetes mellitus.

disorders of the nervous regulation of cardiac activity can also cause premature beats.These violations include the failure of the vagus nerve pinching the spinal cord, nervous trophism pericardium or mediastinum.

frequent beats can cause repetitive stress situations.Being in constant nervous tension, people will not be able to stay healthy for a long time.Sooner or later the body will cease to deal with large amounts of negative emotions.Often takes the brunt cardiovascular system.

Heart diseases are found even in people who lead a healthy lifestyle, but are in a constant state of stress.The first manifestations may be gratuitous pain behind the breastbone, and beats.In the future, if you do not change the situation, or your attitude to it, it can go in hypertension, angina pectoris or myocardial infarction.

depression also adversely affects the functioning of the heart.Mainly because of a violation of serotonin and norepinephrine.These hormones regulate many processes in the body, including the heart.

From biochemical factors should be noted changes in the ionic composition of the blood.Subject to a rigid diet, malnutrition, gastrointestinal disease or pathology systems hormonal regulation of homeostasis, perhaps a change in the number of trace elements of blood, which will affect the operation of the muscle tissue.

work every muscle in the human body at the same time taking part many mechanisms of regulation of energy, transportation of various substances.In any musculature present ion channels that are active or passive transportation into cells or microcells therefrom.Thanks to the coordinated work of all structures at the cellular and molecular levels can ensure the normal operation of an organ.

is no exception, and the myocardium.If the blood that goes directly to the power of the heart muscle, or an excessive amount of calcium, sodium and potassium compounds and magnesium less than normal, then the attack can result in serious disruptions.

Besides cardiac manifestations in the form of premature beats may be constipation, convulsions, cough, shortness of breath.

Sometimes the cause of premature beats may be an increase in blood volume in the background diseases of the excretory system.The increased load on the heart muscle may affect the smooth operation of the heart.

Extrasystoles symptoms

Extrasystoles occurring in a healthy person, are often overlooked.But it happens that the appearance of faults in the feelings of the heart comes amid rapid heartbeat, or high blood pressure.Usually after such complex manifestations of the people go to the doctor.

extrasystolic (paroxysmal) tachycardia is characterized by a sharp quickening of the heart rate is constantly alternating with arrythmia.Typically, the amount reaches 290-310 beats per minute, and is accompanied by feelings of fear, paleness, low blood pressure.Such an attack can last from minutes to days.

In children and adolescents beats may be the first manifestation of this functional disorder such as vegetative-vascular dysfunction.Besides disruptions this disease is often accompanied by a breach in the regulation of vascular tone wall - low or high blood pressure, as well as the symptoms that are characteristic lesions of the autonomic nervous system: nausea, dizziness, sweating, hot flashes, loss of appetite, fainting.

This constellation of symptoms makes parents strongly worry about the health of their child and begin to explore all the parameters.And even if the complaints of shortages on the backburner, during electrocardiography is likely to be detected beats.

also acutely experiencing the appearance of premature beats pregnant women.For this category of people the appearance of any symptom pathology cardiovascular causes feelings of fear, panic, and may aggravate the situation.

A healthy pregnant woman beats may occur due to the increased load on the heart.Very often disruptions occur after exercise or stress.Therefore it is very important for a pregnant woman to a regime of the day, do not resort to physical activities unless absolutely necessary and to protect the nervous system.

There are also opposite cases where in the last weeks of pregnancy the expectant mother does not notice interruptions in chest, referring to the movement of the fetus.In such cases, there may be omitted the first symptoms of disease of the cardiovascular system.

Older people is difficult to distinguish pathological from the physiological extrasystole only complaints.Since this category of complaints of people can bring to the slightest changes in the state of health (and sometimes in order to attract attention to his person).

most reliable for their survey is the method of Holter study (daily monitoring of ECG indicators of the heart).

In older people often accompany beats bouts of hypertension, angina, or tachycardia.

Extrasystoles treatment

Solo beats that may occur during the day for people who do not have health problems, usually do not require any medical treatment.It is enough to lead a healthy life, limiting the use of strong tea, coffee and fatty foods.

If multiple beats, the high frequency of occurrence, rhythmically embedded in the normal cardiac cycle, or the detection of serious comorbidities, it is necessary to apply therapeutic treatments.