Sinus arrhythmia - is disruption of heart rhythm, so that there is a violation of the frequency of heart rate and rhythm.When sinus arrhythmia heartbeats do not occur at regular time intervals, but at the same time, retained the correct sequence of coordination or reduction of the heart.
In certain cases, sinus arrhythmia may be presented as a physiological condition, for example, when breathing or after eating food, after physical activity, suffering stress.When sinus arrhythmia person may not notice at absolutely no symptoms of its manifestation, or they are weak.
Sinus arrhythmia causes
In explaining the causes of sinus arrhythmia identify several groups of disorders causing it.
Violations of the heart are a major cause of severe sinus arrhythmia.Coronary heart disease is on the first place among the factors of development.In this disease there is an insufficient supply of oxygen to the heart muscle, which is why hypoxia, accompanied by severe pain in the heart.
Myocardial infarction is also accompanied by severe sinus arrhythmia.When it comes to the death of a certain area of the heart muscle due to hypoxia, followed by scarring of the site.In heart failure there is a condition in which impaired blood pumping function of the heart, which is also accompanied by cardiac arrhythmias.
Cardiomyopathy is shown, in addition to arrhythmia, structural changes in the heart muscle.A role occupied by the acquired or congenital malformations of the heart;myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle).
also causes of sinus arrhythmia may be a condition not related to the cardiovascular system.So when vegetative-vascular dystonia is observed neurogenic origin sinus arrhythmia.It should be noted that the violation of the nervous system, sinus arrhythmia is usually moderate.When bronchitis or asthma there is a certain giposkicheskaya dysfunction, in which can occur sinus arrhythmia character.There is also reason noncardia character when a sinus arrhythmia of the heart include: diabetes, disorders of the thyroid gland, adrenal gland disease.
When you use certain medicines may develop reversible sinus arrhythmia.This often happens after the use of drugs that stimulate the heart (glycosides);drugs that affect the heart rhythm (antiarrhythmic agents);diuretics.Drinking alcohol and smoking causes disorders of the heart, usually such disorders become irreversible, even after giving up smoking or drinking alcohol arrhythmia persists but has slight character.
Sinus arrhythmia develops in pregnant women due to physiological characteristics and passes on their own after birth.This occurs due to an increase in blood volume and increasing the load on the heart.
Sinus arrhythmia observed in adolescents during puberty due to the increased work function hormone producing organs (adrenal glands, sex organs, the thyroid gland).This arrhythmia is held alone after puberty.
Sinus arrhythmia symptoms
Normal pulse of the heartbeat begins its formation in the sinus node.This node represents a group of specific cells that are present in the wall of the heart and produce an electrical pulse.After that, the momentum flows through the fibers in the heart wall, which are called the cardiac conduction system.Such a system is at odds on a large number of fibers, the smallest of which has its end in every muscle fiber of the heart wall.As a result, at the physiological occurrence of heart pulse heart muscle is working rhythmically and harmoniously, that is committed by an equal reduction in the time span from its optimal rate of about 60-90 strokes / min.
is worth noting that the vascular system is responsible for the correct operation of the sequence of atrial and ventricular contractions.If in this system there are certain violations, it gives rise primarily heart disease, and as a consequence, sinus arrhythmia of the heart.
Sinus arrhythmia represented a variety of symptoms, depending on the frequency of contractions of the heart muscle.By increasing the frequency of contractions observed: shortness of breath, a feeling of lack of oxygen, feeling of pulsation in the temples and in the heart, pain behind the breastbone or in the left breast.By reducing the frequency of contractions observed: weakness, headache, dizziness.
Marked sinus arrhythmia accompanied by circulatory disturbance of the brain, which can lead to loss of consciousness.Moderate sinus arrhythmia has no pronounced symptoms.
sinus arrhythmia diagnosis is established on the basis of the patient's complaints and survey data.Spend elektrokaridografiyu by which detect changes in heart rate.Also used Holter monitoring - prodeduru, is to wear a small device to patients according to the type of ECG for 24 hours.When wearing a Holter Journal entries, which include subsistence activities of the patient (eating, climbing stairs, lifting weights, going to bed and waking up from it, the emotional swings, etc.).After removing the device decrypts the imposition of the results on a sheet of imprisonment.
In some cases, carried ultrasound diagnosis of heart.In addition to ECG, ultrasound and Holter necessary to carry out the biochemical analysis of blood and urine, as well as the study of sex hormones to identify non-cardiac causes of sinus arrhythmia.
Sinus arrhythmia in children
Sinus arrhythmia in children and adolescents is a common condition and is mainly caused by physiological conditions, for example, such as respiratory arrhythmia.But also it can cause congenital heart disease, vascular dystonia, and hormonal changes, especially in adolescence.
Diagnosis of the disease is established on the basis of the inspection and examination results.Gather history of complaints of feeling "gravity" in the heart, weakness and shortness of breath.Establishes terms of occurrence of similar symptoms and causes associated with conditions in the child.Carry out a general examination of the child and listening to askultatsiey pulse.Also, use percussion of the heart, in which you can identify the violation of the heart caused by sinus arrhythmia.Spend electrocardiography with the load and no-load, cardiac ultrasound with Doppler.In severe arrhythmia Holter study is required.
is mandatory consultation pediatrician and pediatric cardiologist, in some cases, it is important to be examined by a neurologist and an endocrinologist.Often, when a disruption to the central nervous system, observed deterioration of the heart, because it is important to rule out pathology of the nervous system.
Treatment of sinus arrhythmia in children should include the proper organization of work and rest.It is advisable to carry out treatment in a sanatorium.This applies arrhythmia mild or moderate severity.In severe sinus arrhythmia treatment is carried out in pediatric cardiology.
First of all, the child is assigned to a special diet of simple carbohydrates and limiting intake of large amounts of fiber (fruits and vegetables).An important prerequisite is the use of psychotherapeutic treatment for the restoration of the emotional state of the child and limit it from stress.Good result gives a method of acupuncture and physiotherapy.
important to note that this in itself does not give any particular arrhythmia complications, but it can be combined with other complications, a more serious condition.A frequent complication is cardiac dysfunction or heart failure system.
is important for a child to create conditions preventing sinus arrhythmia of the heart.These include: proper diet, work and rest, vitamin supplements and amino acids (Elkar ½ tsp 2p / day), the restriction of stress, smoking cessation and alcohol (As for teenagers), advance diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular pathologies-sosudistoy system and other organs.
Sinus arrhythmia ECG
Sinus arrhythmia ECG is determined in periodic R-change intervals, wherein R is represented by more than 0.1 seconds and often depends on the type of breathing.The characteristic ECG sign of this disease is a slow change in the time duration of R-interval where at R after a short interval followed by a long infrequently.Also in sinus tachycardia or bradycardia, increase and decrease R-interval, wherein R flows through T-R intervals.Matter minor violations P-Q interval and QT intervals.
During normal operation of the heart, ectopic automatism centers nature, and those located in its atria have a lower rate of diastolic depolarization and low frequency pulse than the sinus node.Because of this sinus impulses flowing through the heart muscle, resulting in both the excitation of the contracting myocardium and fiber heart tissue, thereby disrupting the diastolic depolarization of the cells which are concentrated in ectopic centers.Because of this, sinus rhythm does not occur the ectopic centers.Certain fibers are collected in the right atrium in the front at the top, in the middle of the side wall and the bottom near the right partition with an opening artioventrikulyarnym.The left atrium includes positioning these centers on the top of the rear and at the bottom.In addition, cells from automated centers could be in the region of lower-left area of the right atrium in the mouths of the coronary sinus.
automatism other centers and automaticity of the atria can show their work in such cases: with a decrease in sinus node automaticity below ectopic automaticity in the center;at elevated function of ectopic atrial automaticity center;sinoatrial blockade nature, as well as in other cases, long pauses in the atrial nervous.The rhythm of the atria can be observed within a few weeks, months and even years, and may be permanent in nature.It can be short, for example, if it is determined in longer intervals between cycles in sinus arrhythmia of the heart, the sinoatrial blockade character and other forms of arrhythmias.
definite signs of a change of pace in the atria considered changing the shape, amplitude and direction of the P-wave.This tooth is changed depending on the location in the source ectopic rate and velocity with the direction of the excitation wave in the atria.For atrial rhythm P-tooth in front of QRS-complex.In a large number of surveys of the rhythm P-tooth it is unlike the P-wave to sinus rhythm downward or upward from the contour.Their differences are in the shape or amplitude in various leads.An exception may be the rhythm of the upper region of the right atrium, in which the P-prong is similar to the sinus.
A very important difference is considered to be atrial rhythm that changed the sinus in one patient on the heart rate, the length of QP and most regular intervals.QRS complex supraventricular region may be aberrant in combination with bundle branch block at a heart rate of 45 to 70 beats / min.With frequent atrial rhythm of the heart rate is 71-100 beats / minute (a rhythm speeded attributed to sinus tachycardia).
Sinus arrhythmia treatment
often irregular heartbeat pass without any treatment after the removal of the reasons that cause them.In other words, whether or not a particular treatment they require.But despite this, in marked sinus arrhythmia drug therapy should be carried out.In this form of arrhythmia may be used as therapeutic methods and pacing the heart.This type of therapy is used, usually in severe sinus bradycardia (slow heart rate), which is accompanied by periodic loss of consciousness.
Choice drug caused characteristic and the individual and should be determined solely by the cardiologist.But when the sinus arrhythmia is caused by emotional instability, or stressful situations, the therapy may also assign and neurologist.Under these causes sinus arrhythmia prescribe sedatives (Novopassit 2 table. 3 p / day, valerian or motherwort 2 table. 4 p / day, Kovralol 25 Cap. 3 p / day) and nootropics (Pantogam 1 tab. 3p / day glycine 1tabl. 4 p / day under the tongue, Pikamellon 2p 40 mg / day Tsetirizn 1 table. 2p / day).But in some cases you may need tranquilizers and antipsychotics, which are assigned directly to a psychiatrist.
When sinus arrhythmia with a heart rate less than 50 per minute (in athletes less than 45 per minute) at which a marked impairment of the central hemodynamics, it is important to resolve the issue by installing a pacemaker.This device is introduced under the skin in the region of the clavicle, and has a miniature size.With certain programs to send an electrical pulse, which is held by the electrodes in the atrium and ventricle.The unit will start its work, when its rate cuts reaches the lower limit of the critical point.
also in the treatment of sinus arrhythmia should comply with the general recommendation, which is assigned to a diet with restriction of flour, fat and sweet, limiting physical activity and stressful moments.Need multivitamin (asparkam Potassium and magnesium sulfate).A must in the treatment of arrhythmias is a herbal (chamomile, sage, raspberry leaf, etc.) And physiotherapy without current (Magnitolazer).
Sinus arrhythmia during pregnancy usually does not require specific treatment, as often disappears after childbirth, but for pregnant women it is still important to take precautions and prevention.These include: advance statement of the pregnant woman on record to perinatology;Perinatology timely visit (once a month up to 12 weeks, once every two weeks to 30 weeks, once a week until the end of pregnancy);conducting various surveys during pregnancy (Holter study, ECG, echocardiography);multivitamins for pregnant women;balanced and rational nutrition with the use of large amounts of dietary fiber;compulsory adherence to rest and work;limiting stress.