myocardial hypertrophy - a lengthy process of compensatory adaptive response of the myocardium.Increasing the performance of the heart muscle due to the increased work load of the myocardium without a certain increase in its unit muscle mass, while existing heart valve defects and hypertension in CCB or the ICC.
This pathological process is physiological and pathological.In the first case, the increase of the heart muscle occurs as a result of the enhanced performance of physical work, or intensive training in any sport.With such hypertrophy increases the mass of the heart attack while increasing muscle mass, which is heavily involved in the work of the heart.
myocardial hypertrophy pathological character is formed independently of the process of increasing skeletal muscle at the same time strengthening compensatory the heart as a result of disturbances in the circulatory system.But, nevertheless, define a clear distinction between these two types of cardiac hypertrop
In addition, there are three stages of myocardial hypertrophy, such as an emergency, complete (sustained hyperactivity) and the stage of slow progressive depletion cardiosclerosis.
to an emergency phase characterized by the development after a high load in combination with pathological disorders of the myocardium (glycogen disappears, reduced creatine phosphate decreases intracellular potassium and sodium content increases, accumulating lactate) as a result of the mobilization of reserves of the myocardium and body.It is in this step increases the load on the muscle, rapidly begin to function and structure of the heart mass is increased due to the protein synthesis and thickening fibers.
In the second stage, all processes have been completed hypertrophy and muscle mass of the heart is increased by almost 100%, the FIS (the intensity of the functioning of the structures) to normal.Abnormalities in the structure and metabolism of the heart muscle does not reveal.In addition, the normalized hemodynamic instability, and altered heart is adapting itself to new loads, and then another for a long time involved in reimbursing them.
For the third stage of exhaustion, characterized by profound metabolic and structural changes taking place in the cells of the heart muscle.A certain amount of muscle fibers die and are replaced on the connective tissue starts to grow and the ISF.It is noted violations of the regulatory machinery of the heart.The progression of the processes of exhaustion causes the development of CHF.
myocardial hypertrophy causes
Under such a change of heart muscle imply pathologically enlarged heart.This anomaly is considered to be a dangerous condition, and does not apply to an independent form of the disease.The formation of myocardial hypertrophy are influenced by various heart diseases, which can lead to poor prognosis of the underlying disease.Typically, in medical practice, the observed increase in the left ventricle of the heart, but sometimes found and myocardial hypertrophy of the pancreas, as well as both.
As a result of this disease 4% of patients die from sudden death, and 80% are available mortality in heart disease.
myocardial hypertrophy formed by sufficiently increased load on the heart, which occur against various diseases, high physical activity and nutritional factors.
But hypertension, coronary heart disease, pulmonary heart, exceeding the rate of physical activity and overweight are the basis of all causes in the development of the pathological process.In addition, factors such as alcohol abuse, smoking, unusual load lifestyle with little mobility and changes at the genetic level can trigger an increase in the cardiac muscle.
Also, this pathological condition can be characterized by congenital etiology resulting in thickening of the myocardium.This occurs as a consequence of the increase in the amount of muscle fibers.
myocardial hypertrophy may also provoke circulatory disturbances within the heart.This is due to a congenital pathology of the anatomical structure of the heart, or it can occur in their lifetime as a result of hypertension.
In addition, an increase in cardiac muscle relates to professional athletes with the pathology of the disease is mainly the left ventricle.This disease manifests itself, depending on the reasons that contributed to its formation with the presence of cardiac rhythm disorders.
left ventricular hypertrophy
Today it is a major predictor of early disease SSSand death.This disease process is also called the heart silent killer.
development of left ventricular hypertrophy due to the presence of genetic, demographic, clinical and biochemical factors.For demographic and lifestyle factors that are associated with the formation of this disease, include the amount of alcohol consumption, obesity, physical activity character, sex, race, age and sensitivity to salt.In addition, left ventricular hypertrophy often affects the male half, and the number of patients with this diagnosis increases with age.
left ventricular hypertrophy occurs twice as often in patients with high arterial hypertension than its soft form.However, not only increases the level of blood pressure plays a major role in the formation of this disease, but also ups the pressure morning, both in patients who were treated with hypertension and do not pass therapy.
of the disease contribute to various factors hemodynamic nature, namely the violation of the rheological blood composition, the changed structure of the arteries, heart load volume and pressure.
to biochemical factors include: increased activity and sympathoadrenal system (RAAS) Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.The higher angiotensin in the body, the more likely to develop left ventricular hypertrophy.It tissue RAAS participates directly in the formation of pathological processes such as hypertrophy, atherosclerosis, and fibrosis.
Among genetic factors in the development of pathological anomalies isolated gene polymorphisms such as ACE, is a regulatory gene.
left ventricular hypertrophy is of two kinds: symmetrical apical and that, as a rule, depends on the place where the heart tissue increases.
Symptoms at the beginning is characterized by asymptomatic, so many patients may not be aware of developing left ventricular hypertrophy.
The main complaints of patients are pain in the heart, increased blood pressure, migraines, dizziness, state of general malaise, appear arrhythmia, passing later in angina.
first sign of the disease is the appearance of shortness of breath, followed by the development of syncope or without them.Visually there is not much change, but expressly pathological process marked cyanosis of the skin.
for diagnosing left ventricular hypertrophy apply ultrasound of the heart, which is considered the main method of diagnosis, through which manages to identify the available increase of the heart muscle.The second method is a survey of the ECG.In this disease the T wave changes and becomes pathological Q waves, reveal multiple arrhythmia with possible ventricular tachycardia.An alternative to daily monitoring of the electrocardiogram appears.For additional diagnostic radiography is.When listening determined systolic murmur and palpation - flutter of the rib cage.
The basis of therapeutic measures left ventricular hypertrophy is conducting medical and symptomatic treatment.In this case, are appointed by beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors, drugs that normalize the heart rate and lower blood pressure.Severe forms of pathological diseases require surgery to resect the enlarged and altered portion of the myocardium.Also important remains adherence to the day and food, of course, an even distribution of physical activity with the possibility of restriction.
myocardial hypertrophy symptoms
This condition refers to the body's compensatory measure, which is designed to ensure that the blood supply to all its tissues.Against the backdrop of the vices of aortic or mitral valve functioning is insufficient increase in heart muscle develops much more often.However, it is symptomatic identify problematic, as manifest themselves signs of underlying pathology.
process of increasing the heart muscle goes through three stages: compensation and decompensation subcompensation.Clinically, the first two stages virtually do not show themselves, even though at the stage subcompensation sometimes show signs of angina.
decompensation stage is characterized by symptoms suggestive of heart failure.At the same difficulty breathing patients are concerned, emerging angina, rapid heartbeat, muscle weakness, drowsiness, and a constant feeling of fatigue.Specific features of this stage of the disease are swelling of the face, which appears at the end of the day, a dry cough and a falling voltage pulse.In addition, very often marked symptoms of asthma such as a heart, that is taking place of stagnation in the IWC.This causes wheezing, which forces the patient to take the position orthopnea.At the same time observed swelling of the lower limbs, abdomen, indicating that the FLL manifestations.
Since all the symptoms of myocardial hypertrophy occurs during decompensation, in the presence of heart defects is possible to quickly recognize the development of this pathology in the early stages.In addition, if the patient begins to celebrate the decline in functional reserve SSS, that is, he gets short of breath after working or dark eyes, it is considered to be a reason for an urgent referral to a specialist.
myocardial hypertrophy treated
main goal of treatment of pathological diseases is to reduce the increase in heart volume to normal levels.Mainly for that use different methods of treatment of myocardial hypertrophy: Drug-free;treatment with drugs and surgery.
first treatment option is to avoid the patient from nicotine and alcohol;excluding heavy loads of physical nature;weight loss.Most often used in complex therapy whole.The first starts with the underlying pathology and treatment prescribed beta-blocker, verapamil, which are used to treat existing hypertrophy, but also during the course of latent disease.But in those moments when the inefficient methods of medical treatment, prescribe surgery to solve this problem.
essence of surgical intervention in myocardial hypertrophy consists of performing two types of operations.In the first case, ischemia is eliminated, which is performed at the last stage of the pathological process (decompensation).This is achieved by stenirovaniya angioplasty and coronary arteries.
second type of surgery - it is carrying out the correction of heart defects.To conduct this valve replacement in case of insufficient function and commissurotomy.
myocardial hypertrophy is a dangerous disease and its presence increases the percentage of various complications.Therefore, you should always monitor the blood pressure, to pass annual examination and ultrasound of the heart seen by a cardiologist to monitor the situation over time.
Thus, if all the recommendations of the favorable outcome of myocardial hypertrophy is not a sentence to the patient.