Heart diseases



arrythmia photo Extrasystole - a special fibrillation, which is characterized by extraordinary extrasystoles (heart beat) with certain impulses arising in the myocardium as an additional place of excitement.As the heart muscle after its contraction in it remains nonexcitability some point, the next pulse is flowing normally unable to cause a reduction in systolic, so developing certain compensatory pause.

Extrasystole characterized briefly sinking heart, that is, the occurrence of disruption of its functioning.Typically, distinguish atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, which are characterized by single and multiple forms of current and appear normal or erratic contractions.Suffice it to note the appearance of rare group extrasystoles.These arrhythmias can occur in people without heart disease.Basically sporadically occurring beats does not have the characteristic symptomatic picture.

atrial extrasystole is caused by the mitral heart defects and cardiosclerosis.Often there is this incredible,

especially in groups, in the presence of these pathologies is considered a harbinger of atrial fibrillation.

Extrasystole in the ventricles - is a consequence of nervous and mental disorders, myocardial damage, as well as other changes.Often there is an arrhythmia, which comes from different parts of the heart can cause ventricular fibrillation.

To diagnose this condition apply ECG study.Treatment is prescribed, starting from the cause of the arrhythmia.Sometimes resorted to the use of antiarrhythmic drugs.

Extrasystole heart

cardiac rhythm disorders, characterized by further reductions of certain premature beats or heart as a whole is called cardiac arrythmia.This status is a strong push by the nature of the heart with a sense of heart-stopping appearance of anxiety and lack of air.When cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac output is reduced, thereby reducing the blood flow in the coronary and cerebral vessels, which leads to the development of angina, syncope, paresis and other pathologies.The appearance of arrhythmia provokes fibrillation and cardiac arrest.Also, the heart beats may occur in almost ill people.Based on studies of this type of ECG arrhythmia is determined in 75% of patients after fifty years.

The causes of arrhythmia acts appearing increased activity of ectopic foci, which are localized in the ventricles, atria, and atrioventricular node.A characteristic of the pulses that occur in them out of turn, spread over the myocardium and cause premature heartbeats character in diastolic phase.Such complexes can occur in any part of the conduction system.

Extrasystole characterized by reduced blood ejection, so frequent cuts can cause significant reduction in the IOC (minute volume of blood circulation).Therefore, the early development of arrhythmia leads to a decrease in blood volume during extrasystolic release.And it affects the coronary circulation and may cause cardiac complications.

Extrasystole heart is the different types of arrhythmias, which are characterized by symptoms of unequal importance and forecasting of these states.Among the most dangerous beats isolated ventricular lesions developing in the heart of an organic nature.

Typically, extrasystole affect exciting place localization of ectopic foci, so they are atrioventricular, ventricular and atrial and different in their combinations.Very rarely typical pulses originate from the sinus node and atrial and sometimes celebrated the simultaneous reduction - extrasystolic and sinus.This is called an arrhythmia parasystole.

beats, which appear consecutively are considered paired and two more emerging - salvo or group.

heart rate, which is characterized by the alternation of systole beats and normal character represents bigeminy and alternation beats two eusystole - trigeminy.If these recurring cuts formed allodromy.

Extrasystole heart can be early, which is recorded simultaneously with the electrocardiogram T-wave;middle - in 0.50 seconds after the T-wave, and later - to the P tooth normal heartbeat.In addition, the beats are rare, medium, and frequent, and may also appear in one focus of excitation (monotopnye) and within (politopnye).

the leading cause of heart arrhythmia are neurogenic (psychogenic), heart rhythm disorders caused by chemical and nutritional factors, alcohol, nicotine and drugs.

Extrasystole genesis of heart function observed in patients with VSD, osteochondrosis and neuroses.A healthy humans, it appears among athletes, women during the menstrual cycle, after stress, drinking coffee or tea.This form of arrhythmia is considered idiopathic, which develops without a specific reason.

Extrasystole organic etiology is formed as a result of coronary artery disease, cardiosclerosis, pericarditis, pulmonary heart, gemozromatoza, amyloidosis, cardiomyopathy, heart diseases, myocardial injury in the background sakoidoza.And at a certain group of athletes cause of the arrhythmia it is a degeneration of the myocardium as a result of physical surge.

Extrasystole toxic origin is explained by the rise in temperature in the form of fever, side effects on antiaritmetiki and thyrotoxicosis.Also these arrhythmias can be formed as a consequence of impaired ratio between the ions of magnesium, calcium, sodium and potassium in the myocardium, which have a negative impact on the system that conducts pulses.Load the physical character can cause extrasystoles as a result of changes in the heart and metabolism.

symptomatic picture of arrhythmia characterized by a push in the area of ​​the heart from the inside, as a consequence of sudden ventricular rate after a pause of a compensatory nature.In addition, there is a heartfelt and fade violation of his work.

When functional arrhythmia occur hot flashes, there is discomfort in the form of weakness, anxiety, sweating and lack of air.

frequent arrhythmias earlier as well as group reduced cardiac output, decrease in renal blood flow, cerebral and coronary blood vessels of almost 25%.In patients with atherosclerotic vascular lesions of the brain develops whirling head, aphasia, loss of consciousness and paresis, and in ischemic heart disease - angina.

arrythmia Complications may be atrial fibrillation, tachycardia parokizmalnoy forms of atrial fibrillation.A frequently encountered arrhythmia become a cause of chronic insufficient blood flow in the coronary vessels, kidneys and brain.The most dangerous are ventricular arrhythmias, as can trigger ventricular fibrillation and sudden death.

ekstrasistoly used to diagnose an electrocardiogram, but to assume this kind of arrhythmic heartbeat is possible when examination of the patient and the patient's specific complaints.

Extrasystole reasons

This type of arrhythmia is often diagnosed in persons who are considered to be perfectly healthy.For example, when examining a large number of people, arrythmia has been found nearly 49%.And during repeated surveys over a hundred people a day using teleelektrokardiografii revealed this type of arrhythmia is almost 30%.Thus, the disruptions that occur in the heart, not a sign of a pathological process infarction.

Basically arrythmia develops as a consequence of some extracardiac influences of nature.With the help of the experiments it was found that beats Irritating certain parts of the brain.These departments include: the cortex, hypothalamus, thalamus, medulla and cerebellum.There are beats, which is formed on the background of anxiety, conflict, anger, fear, emotional experiences.In addition, the arrhythmia may be a manifestation of the general neurosis.

Causes of reflex extrasystole appear acute diseases of the stomach, chronic cholecystitis, pancreatitis, and diaphragmatic hernia operation in the area of ​​the abdomen, as well as pathological processes occurring in the mediastinum, lung, pleura, and various fusion pericardium.Thus, a significant role in the formation of the central nervous system is given arrhythmia and autonomic.

But the most common cause of promoting the development of this arrhythmia are considered organic disorders that occur in the myocardium.It is important to know that even the slightest pathology of the heart muscle in conjunction with the factors of a functional nature, can cause the formation of ectopic foci of excitation.In addition, various forms of coronary heart disease with changes in the myocardium can lead to arrhythmias.Almost 90% of patients diagnosed with myocardial infarction observed heart rhythm disturbance and basically it beats.Sometimes she formed in the presence of early emerging and the only sign of failure of the coronary circulation.At some points this arrhythmia promotes angina.To date, we have shown that ventricular premature beats often occur against the background of coronary disease after a heart attack significantly worsen prognosis of a pathological condition and increase the percentage of sudden death after ventricular fibrillation.

Extrasystole observed in patients with the presence of rheumatic acquired, particularly as a result of the defeat of the mitral valve.Also among the main reasons for the formation of an organic nature beats the young people considered to rheumatism.

Very often beats developed during myocarditis, rheumatic and rheumatic origin, infection and cardiomyopathy.Several less occurrence of the arrhythmia occurs as a result of hyperthyroidism.But the treatment of cardiac glycosides with signs of overdose cause the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmia.This arrhythmia sometimes appears after the application of certain types of anesthesia, treatment of electrical impulses or stimulation of the heart muscle.

addition, extrasystolic arrhythmias can cause severe poisoning with organophosphorus insecticide properties as bigeminy, ventricular arrhythmia in a single form, trigeminy passing into politopnye extrasystoles and ventricular fibrillation.On the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias have changes in electrolyte balance infarction, heart surgery, sensing his cavities koronagrafiya other reasons.

Extrasystole symptoms

As a result of delays in the heartbeat of the heart or of individual cells, there beats as one of the most recorded species of arrhythmias.Almost 65% of people can find beats that are neurogenic (functional) nature, triggered by nicotine, alcohol, tea and coffee.A variety of organic beats caused myocardial damage.

Usually, arrythmia feel any patient in the form of a push, fade, stop, and change of heart, and his characteristic sense of detail, and may in all colors to describe severe emotional patients.In some cases, patients do not realize that they begin a special kind of arrhythmia, but learned to understand extrasystole of disruptions pulse via consulting a doctor, patients feel their.And that many patients suffering brings subjective.

Enough rare in patients with certain changes in the heart muscle and in the presence of arrhythmia are not felt disruptions of the heart.As a rule, this is indicated in the elderly, patients with a diagnosis of coronary atherosclerosis and atherosclerotic vascular lesions of the brain as a consequence of the high threshold of excitability of the CNS.Certain categories of patients complained of intermittent form of dizziness, which coincide with the compensatory pause after more arrhythmias and pain, which compresses the heart.

Some clinicians argue that some patients beats appears in a state of absolute rest, while others - against the background of certain stresses.Beats alone has the functional form and is manifested in the tone of the parasympathetic part of the central nervous system, and during the arrhythmia at a voltage of a physical nature - against the backdrop of increased tone of the SNA and mainly in the heart of the organic properties of the lesions.When salvo forms are characterized by extraordinary beats, loud, successive tones.This is based on the beats of the heart of the heart as the atria, ventricles and atrioventricular connections.

When the frequent ventricular arrhythmia, a decrease in coronary blood flow, and against the background of IHD it provokes attacks of angina.Furthermore, such extrasystoles reduce brain circulation by 10% and thus there syncope, paresis, dizziness and aphasia.When probing heartbeat can be determined premature pulse wave, followed by a pause, or note the absence of a pulse on an artery in the region of the radius.

When listening to the top of the heart is determined by two colors, one of which is amplified and is characterized by small ventricular filling, and the second number is weakened as a result of reduced cardiac output in LA and the aorta.In those moments when the beats arise early and do not open the valve and aorta LA, tapped two normal heart tones and one extrasystolic.If unable to determine the compensatory pause after further reductions involve premature atrial contraction, and in the case of its severity - ventricular.To confirm the diagnosis used ECG study.

frequent arrythmia

This form of arrhythmia characterized extrasystoles premature contractions that are detected on the electrocardiogram.By location sources often isolated ventricular arrhythmias and supraventricular form.

frequent arrythmia characterized heartbeats over thirty per hour.They can occur in healthy people.Normally allow up to two hundred hours of supraventricular contractions in shape and the same ventricular.Sometimes there are double or single beats.But, mostly, often arising three consecutive arrhythmia called tachycardia.The unstable heartbeat is characterized by episodes of tachycardia less than thirty seconds.In some cases, frequent arrythmia is a group or burst.And it is, especially in the pair and giving a relapse, a degree of continuous-recurring reduction, in which almost 85% per day is ectopic complex character, and sinus - a single reduction or short episodes of rhythm.

In addition, earlier suggested that a high degree of gradation of arrhythmia is the most dangerous.But today found that the symptomatic and prognostic value of the arrhythmia is largely dependent on the nature of the underlying pathology, the degree of cardiac lesions and the condition of the heart muscle.

patients with no signs of damage to the heart muscle during normal operation of the left ventricle, beats with episodes of unstable ventricular tachycardia and continuously repeating tachycardia, not dangerous for life and does not affect the further prediction.Arrhythmia without cardiac lesions considered idiopathic organic nature.And beats when postinfarction cardiosclerosis, dilatation, or left ventricular hypertrophy is characterized by a poor prognosis.Thus, any beats even a part of itself is safe.She's called cosmetic, and thus emphasizes their safety.

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