supraventricular arrhythmias - it is a certain kind of heart rate at which the automaticity of ectopic foci formed in the myocardium of the atria or the atrioventricular junction. supraventricular arrhythmias can be detected in individuals who do not have heart disease and conversely.The causes of this condition may be an increased concentration of catecholamines, which are involved in the circulation, multiple effects and pericardial pathology of pulmonary heart.
Sometimes heartbeats may trigger atrial fibrillation and atrial tachycardia in the area above the ventricles.Further, when pulses are developed in one portion atrial P wave monomorphic formed with the same shape, and in the event of pulses in different sections - polifokusnye polymorphic or ectopic P-wave with different shape.But ectopic impulse that is conducted through the atrioventricular connection is characterized by a certain slowing down, that is a complex formed by an elongated interval PR.
supraventricular arrhythmias at the electrocardiogram is a deformed premature P wave, with subsequent modifications complex QRST.After heartbeat formed incomplete compensatory pause, which is slightly longer than the interval RR.In some cases, there is a blocking atrial beats.Supraventricular arrhythmia form of the atrioventricular node is characterized by extraordinary complexes, which have a negative P teeth in certain leads, recorded before the QRS complex and beyond, or when layering.For atrial heart rate inherent deformation of the complex due to the blockade of the conduction system.
With existing heart disease status is monitored constantly patients to quickly identify a permanent form of violation of the heart rate.In this case, the antiarrhythmic drugs first, second and fourth grades, and cardiac glycosides.And in the absence of pathologic heart disease, it is advisable to stop using coffee, tea, alcohol and smoking.
supraventricular arrhythmias reasons
Today revealed the diversity of the causes of supraventricular arrhythmia.In general terms, supraventricular heart rate can be divided into functional and organic beats nature.Some authors consider only functional atrial fibrillation contractions of neurogenic origin, occurs in people who have a healthy heart.Indeed, such categories of people in a study on the ECG detected arrhythmia present in 60% of cases.And they mostly appear in urezhenii sinus.However, apart from the causes of neurogenic release diselektrolitnye, toxic, dishormonal, medicines, etiological factors, that is, those which are caused by the lungs forms of degenerative disorders in the myocardium and tested in the reduction of metabolic processes.
neurogenic atrial contractions include hyperadrenergic, vagal and gipoadrenergicheskie heartbeat.In the first case, supraventricular arrhythmias occur when the emotional excitement, intense physical and mental work of a man, with the use of alcohol, nicotine, spicy food, etc.Very often heartbeats occur in patients suffering from neuroses, IRR, diencephalic disorders property.But gipoadrenergicheskie beats find quite problematic.The lack of norepinephrine in the heart muscle is characterized by the presence of pathogenic factor of myocardial dystrophy alcohol-toxic genesis.Also, many athletes when available myocardiodystrophy with chronic physical overexertion, supraventricular arrhythmias may develop.
Enhanced vagal stimulation also affects the formation of the arrhythmia.But if faults occur in the heart rate during sleep, eating, in a horizontal position, it can be argued that the reason for the formation of the heart rate is considered too large effect on the heart of the vagus nerve.Very often, these reflections come from a sliding hernia, gastric bladder diverticula of the esophagus.Other sources of cardiac stimulation are: bowel, gallbladder, neoplasms of the stomach, prostate cancer and uterine fibroids, and others.
to a functional form of supraventricular arrhythmias include atrial fibrillation in healthy children and young people of high growth.Some of them show a change in the chest, Marfan syndrome, mid-hearted.These features often occur in combination with the VVD, which becomes the cause of supraventricular arrhythmia.
also well known arrhythmogenic effects hypokalemia in combination with iron deficiency, and anemia, hyperkalemia, hypoproteinemia, retention of sodium ions and water, as well as hypertension.In addition, an important role in the formation of supraventricular arrhythmia plays thyrocardiac dystrophy.But tonzillogennaya form of degeneration of the heart muscle occurs only single extrasystoles and their causes can be unsettled for a long time.
to the organic nature of supraventricular arrhythmias include heart rhythm disturbances on the background of ischemic heart disease, myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, heart defects, particularly mitral stenosis.The second subgroup of the arrhythmia may include patients with prolapse triskupidalnogo valve, a slight defect in the partition between the atria, idiopathic reaming atrium LA and diabetes mellitus, obesity and chronic alcohol poisoning.
supraventricular arrhythmias symptoms
This is a fixed form of arrhythmia in which the heart says the excitation pulse as a result arising out of turn, and coming from the atria or atrioventricular connection.
The basis of the main mechanism of atrial heartbeats includes rientri process in some areas of the heart muscle or conduction system, which have a conductivity of different shapes and blockade of this impulse in the same direction.
Another mechanism of supraventricular arrhythmias is considered pathological automatism of cardiac conduction system increased activity of the membranes of the myocardium in the early or late diastole systole.In clinical practice, one of the most common causes of arrhythmia nadzheludochkoy find violations in a vegetative equilibrium dominated sympathotony.These disorders are caused by weather, emotional factors and the influence of nicotine, alcohol and coffee on the body of patients.Typically, supraventricular arrhythmias may arise in healthy people to thirty times a day.
Symptomatic picture basically consists of subjective sensations, which in cardiac atria are not always expressed.Suffice it hard to tolerate those diagnosed with VSD, but at the heart of organic lesions of this type of arrhythmia is transferred more easily.
mainly supraventricular arrhythmias manifested blow, push the heart in the chest from the inside as a result of vigorous contraction of the heart after a pause of a compensatory nature.Sometimes there is a turning or tumbling heart failure in his work in the form of fading.For the functional form of arrhythmia characterized by hot flashes, discomfort, weakness, anxiety, sweating and lack of air.
frequent supraventricular arrhythmia help reduce cardiac output, and this in turn reduces the blood flow in the coronary vessels, kidneys and brain.And with coronary artery disease develops angina;if signs of atherosclerotic vascular lesions of the brain, patients complain of spinning head syncope, paresis and aphasia.
on the electrocardiogram when the atrial arrhythmia appears premature P wave and the complex QRS;deforms and changes the polarity of the tooth;determined incomplete compensatory pause;there maloizmenёnny extrasystolic complex QRS;P wave form varies from one complex to another.
supraventricular arrhythmias single
This form is called a premature supraventricular beats the electrical activation of the heart as a result of pulses, which are located in the atria, pulmonary veins or hollow, as well as atrioventricular connection.A single supraventricular arrhythmias is considered safe and can appear at absolutely healthy people.This type of arrhythmia occurs most other forms.
single supraventricular arrhythmias may develop due to various diseases SSS, endocrine disorders and other diseases that are accompanied by cardiac symptoms.In healthy people, this arrhythmia is provoked by stressful situations, physical activity, intoxication and iatrogenic factors.
single supraventricular arrhythmias is of two kinds - of atrial and atrioventricular node.For atrial form characterized by the formation of ectopic foci of excitation in the atria, which is passed up to the sinus node and down into the ventricles.This type of arrhythmia is caused by organic lesions of the heart and is marked with a horizontal position of the patient.
for supraventricular arrhythmia of AV connections characterized two types of heart rate.In the first case excited atria and then the ventricles.And they resemble the clinical characteristics of atrial arrythmia.In the second case, simultaneously excited and atria and ventricles.
Symptoms single supraventricular arrhythmia is made up of too strong of heart jolts and bumps.Patients appear complaints about the failure of the heart when there is fading, and it stops.At the time of pause, compensatory nature may dizzy, there is a weakness throughout the body, the patient can not breathe, there is a sense of compression of the chest and pain in the heart.
identify this type of arrhythmia fails when listening to the heart and ECG.
supraventricular arrhythmias treatment
Sometimes the arrhythmia may occur benign and does not require the appointment of treatment.If possible, try to eliminate the cause of supraventricular arrhythmia.
indications for the use of antiarrhythmic drugs therapy is poorly tolerated this form of arrhythmia, high risk of ventricular fibrillation and often heartbeats occur, more than a thousand a day.Do not use antiarrhythmic therapy in idiopathic nature of the arrhythmia, the absence of symptoms, including Edge heart rate and intolerance.
main goal of treatment is considered necessary to suppress supraventricular arrhythmias and reduce the severity of symptoms and reduce the risk of developing atrial fibrillation.
indications for hospitalization are acute heart rate frequently occurs in the presence of organic lesions of the atria.
Non-pharmacological treatment of supraventricular arrhythmia implies the elimination of causal factors and psychotherapeutic influence.
But when choosing antiarrhythmic drugs pay attention to the etiology and prognostic value of the number of supraventricular arrhythmias.Generally, treatment is initiated with a beta-blocker (propranol, atenolol, Metoprlola, Bisoprlola, betaxolol, nebivolol).Then designate verapamil, diltiazem (calcium antagonists).Especially these two groups of drugs are effective in the form of a trigger arrhythmias.And only then proceed to the use of antiarrhythmic drugs, taking into account all contraindications (disopyramide, VFS, quinidine, propafenone, Etatsizin).
To assess the effectiveness of these drugs used Holter monitoring.Furthermore, simultaneously sanitize foci of chronic infections such as chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine in combination with NSAIDs and low doses of glucocorticoids.And appoint sedatives and benzodiazepines with Wegetotropona or antiarrhythmic action.
Surgical treatment is used in common and sensitive to drugs in the arrhythmia as radiofrequency ablation.
supraventricular arrhythmias are not dangerous for the patient, but sometimes they can be hard to be transferred, as well as cause other arrhythmias.
forecast supraventricular arrhythmia is in direct proportion to the severity of the underlying heart disease, heart rate and risk of atrial flutter or atrial fibrillation.