Irregular heartbeat - a frequent pathology of cardiac activity, which consists in a deviation from the normal rhythm of systematic and contractile function of the heart muscle.
The heart is a vital organ of the human body, so even the slightest violation of cardiac rhythm adversely affect the functioning of all the structures.
Center of cardiac arrhythmias is located in the myocardium and in the so-called "conducting system" of the heart, so all kinds of imbalances of the heart can be attributed either to the excitability violations or violations conductivity.
Causes of cardiac arrhythmias
abnormality of the heart rhythm and conduction can occur at any age, because this pathology belongs to the category polietiologichesky groups of diseases, that is, there are many modifiable and modifiable factors that can independently or in combination to provoke this orother arrhythmias.
not corrected provocateurs failure regularity and systematic cardiac activity are:
- old age patient, causes physiological trophic disorders in the myocardium, which have a detrimental effect on the process of generating and transmitting an electrical pulse;
- family history of congenital forms of arrhythmias, and various congenital malformations structures of the cardiovascular system;
- insulin-dependent form of diabetes, which is the trigger of malfunction of the heart muscle that is not their own, this pathology is the root cause of arrhythmia, but worsens it for.
heavily on the development of various forms of cardiac arrhythmias affect etiopathogenetical modifiable factors, the removal of which is the main key to successful treatment of cardiac arrhythmias.
Among these factors are the most common:
- all kinds of organic abnormalities of the heart, accompanied by changes in the structure of the myocardium and the valvular apparatus, as well as significant changes in the vascular walls of large blood vessels, delivering essential nutrients to the heart muscle;
- diseases of the hormonal system, in particular crude thyroid disease with concomitant hypo- and hyperthyroidism;
- long uncontrolled intake of certain groups of drugs that violate the metabolic processes in the body and causing electrolyte imbalance (diuretic drugs, anticonvulsants);
- resistant hypertension do not respond to antihypertensive agents (the mechanism of arrhythmias caused by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, constrictive, which constitutes an obstacle to the passage of an electric pulse thickened myocardium);
- overweight patient who is in 90% of cases causes the development of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, responsible for the nutrition of the heart muscle;
- pathology, accompanied by severe electrolyte shifts, as the work of the heart muscle depends on the content in the body of essential trace elements;
- cardiomyopathy of alcoholic origin in 50% of cases provokes symptoms of atrial fibrillation;
- the systematic use of psychotropic drugs is rough acute cardiac arrhythmia, eventually ending in death.
symptoms of cardiac arrhythmia
All kinds of rhythm disturbances of the heart muscle can be divided by clinical manifestations into two groups, depending on how slow or speed the contractile ability of the heart.Thus, for the types of arrhythmias, accompanied by slowing heart muscle, characterized by symptoms of circulatory disorders, and arrhythmias tahiaritmicheskogo accompanied by a number of complaints to the patient a sense of disruption of the heart.However, each of the divisions of arrhythmias has its own specific symptoms, which allows to suspect the presence of some form of heart disorders.
When even completely healthy person with no pathological changes in the heart muscle, is in unusual conditions for it (stress, excessive physical activity, increased ambient temperature), a so-called "physiological" form of tachyarrhythmia that requires medical intervention and passeson their own after eliminating factors that provoked it.This arrhythmia is not accompanied by gross organic lesions of the heart muscle and cause persistent health problems.
tahiaritmicheskoy arrhythmias arising on a background of organic heart disease, accompanied by the appearance of bright clinical symptom of feeling heart palpitations, a feeling of heat in the upper half of the body, especially the head, in spite of the expressed pallor and humidity of the skin.Symptoms suggestive in favor of developing severe tachyarrhythmia is varying degrees of impaired consciousness from short-term to sopor fainting.This form of disruption of the heart need not only in emergency diagnosis method of electrocardiography, and the systematic admission of a number of anti-arrhythmic drugs.
Contrary to tachyarrhythmia is a symptom caused by decreased heart rate - bradyarrhythmia.Like the previous group, bradiaritmicheskie form of arrhythmia may occur in individuals who do not have heart disease (professional athletes, the elderly) and do not cause discomfort and health problems expressed.Bradiaritmicheskie types of heart block may be either short-term or permanent nature and manifest as severe weakness, dizziness, transient loss of consciousness, seizures, and in severe even be fatal.
unique nature of occurrence and type of clinical manifestations of cardiac arrhythmias is a premature beats.An interesting fact is that even the heart of a healthy person generates about 4% extrasystolic reductions in relation to the total number of heart contractions.This frequency is not able to exercise significant influence on the normal functioning of the heart and is not accompanied by changes in human health.The emergence of the group ekstrasitolicheskih rate increased frequency causes the characteristic symptoms of a feeling of "bated breath", followed by the strong impetus heart, breathing difficulties, typical cardialgia and at a constant form of this disease in a patient formed a characteristic symptom stenokardicheskie.This form of cardiac rhythm disturbances are more likely to be transformed into ventricular fibrillation, in most cases, having a fatal outcome.
Irregular heartbeat children
Unlike adults, who often violation of the rhythm of the heart occurs against a background of other diseases in childhood period arrhythmia equally diagnosed as healthy in the cardiovascular system of persons soand in children with congenital forms of arrhythmias.
According to world statistics in the field of pediatrics and cardiology, the percentage of episodes of arrhythmias in children of different age groups in the general structure of heart disease is at least 27%.Children in puberty are more prone to heart rhythm disturbances, since in this period there are marked changes in the activity of all structures of the body in the humoral and cellular level.
In identifying the causes of some form of heart disorders, special attention should be paid to the psycho-emotional state of the child, as in many cases, the adequacy of the methods of psychological correction accompanied by a complete leveling signs of arrhythmia.
features of arrhythmias in patients pediatric age groups is their latent for diagnosis and only when passing preventive electrocardiographic studies.Unlike adults, children are not inherent to the arrhythmia complaints disruption of the heart, as well as cardiac symptoms.In this period the fore symptoms of psycho-vegetative syndrome (irritability, disturbances of sleep a night, meteosensitivity, transient disturbances of consciousness).
Arrhythmias, not accompanied by persistent violations of cardiac and non-organic nature of occurrence, prone to self-regression.More pronounced rhythmic disturbances of the heart greatly aggravate the condition of the patient, causing a persistent disorder of the central hemodynamics.Forecast for the life of a child with an arrhythmia favorable conditions in the timely holding of medical correction.
treatment of cardiac arrhythmias
fundamental principle of treating any form of arrhythmia is the correction of eating behavior, work and rest, as well as conducting adequate etiopathogenetic reasonable therapy with conservative methods of treatment, and in severe disease - surgery.
By means of etiological treatment of cardiac arrhythmias such groups include drugs such as:
- beta-blockers in diseases of the thyroid gland with thyrotoxicosis (Nebilet a daily dose of 2.5 mg);
- sedative drugs when tachyarrhythmia neurocirculatory genesis (Sedasen forte 1 capsule 3 times a day);
- cardiac glycosides, which are used in chronic heart failure with associated tachyarrhythmia (Digoxin at a daily dose of 0.75 mg).
specific antiarrhythmic drugs require careful approach with regard to the selection of appropriate therapeutic dose, followed by systemic administration of one or more antiarrhythmic agents in the maintenance dose.In an era of rapid development of pharmacy, the conditions for the development of new formulations of anti-arrhythmic drugs and producing enormous amounts of analogs of certain drugs, so the task of the cardiologist is to determine the type of arrhythmia and use of the drug, relating to one of three classes.
first class drugs have strong pro-arrhythmic properties (Etmozin, propafenone) and their applications is a refractory form of arrhythmia.
Drugs of the second class are considered the most lenient in regard to tolerance of the patient and are used in virtually any form of cardiac arrhythmia (atenolol, bisoprolol).
antiarrhythmic agents of the third class is used for the relief of ventricular fibrillation (amiodarone).
Provided treated early with individual selection of antiarrhythmic treatment regimens, there is a favorable outcome, consisting in fully cupping cardiac arrhythmias and the prevention of complications.
feature of all groups of antiarrhythmic drugs is that they have a positive effect only for one group of arrhythmias, but can be instigators of occurrence of other types of arrhythmias, and therefore the selection of the individual schemes antiarrhythmic therapy should be performed only in a hospital cardiology underpermanent control indicators electrocardiography.
surgical techniques to correct heart rhythm disorders is rarely used when there is an arrhythmia caused by rough organic heart disease or arrhythmia stable in the conduct of medical treatment.Minimally invasive surgery, is used to treat ventricular arrhythmias, is the establishment of a pacemaker, the operating principle of which is to ensure the function of the natural pacemaker.