Dry skin is primarily expressed in violation of the water, as well as lipid metabolism, changing the operation of the sebaceous and sweat glands.In order to understand the causes of dry skin, we will look in more detail what is actually skin are and what their role in humans.
The skin is the outer layer that protects the body from external influences involved in thermoregulation, respiration and metabolic processes.The area of the skin of an adult reaches two square meters, and weighs about one sixth of the total body weight.Skin act as a barrier between the human body and the environment, perform numerous important functions are involved in the regulation of body temperature, protect internal organs from various types of mechanical effects (pressure shocks, friction).
presence antiseptic environment on the skin protects the body against disease-causing microbes.Until then, until the skin is healthy, it supports the required level of moisture and protects a person from the influe
The skin consists of three layers.First the epidermis, dermis, the second and third layer of subcutaneous fat.The epidermis is the outer layer reaches a thickness of 0.03-1 mm.Thinnest epidermis have eyelids, and in those places where a strong impact is most - epidermis thickens to 30 times.Epidermal desquamation of the upper layer is a normal physiological process, since the skin surface separates each day to two billion keratinized skin flakes.A cell epidermis updated every four weeks.Restoration of the skin is carried out by dividing the cells of the basal and the deepest layer of the epidermis.The basal layer of creatine in the synthesis of young cells.This is done at night.People do not notice the upgrade skin.The process of exfoliation is noticeable when the Department of dead skin cells are in large groups.The basal layer of the epidermis and plays an important role in determining our sun.It contains melanophores (pigment cells) involved in the formation of melanin pigment in the sun.Pigment cells are distributed on the skin surface uneven.For example, the face region has in each square centimeter is twice the melanophores than on the inner side of the arm.Therefore, the person is able to sunbathe a lot faster and stronger.If the skin is not able to produce melanin after sun exposure, this phenomenon is called albinism, but people relate to albino.
under the top layer of the epidermis is the dermis, which is much thicker (2.4 mm).The dermis is very dense, connective, fiber, fabric and a basic substance, comprising elastic and collagen fibers.These fibers are responsible for the condition of the skin and for whether the skin is dry, loose or stretched and taut.Collagen fibers under certain conditions absorb and store moisture.When filling with moisture to failure, skin visually look supple and smooth.The second important task is to ensure the dermis epidermis nutrients: trace elements, vitamins, oxygen, proteins, minerals and amino acids.The dermis is able to maintain a constant body temperature in the range of 37 degrees.Temperature control is carried out automatically.Blood, tiny capillaries in the narrow sense of the cold and the heat expanding.When the narrowing of blood vessels visible on the surface of the skin, she is given the name of "goose".If the body overheats or is working hard physically active sweat glands secrete sweat.Speaking at the surface of the skin, the sweat evaporates.Thus, there is a cooling of the skin and protect the entire body from overheating.
last speaker subcutaneous fat, which is the deepest layer of skin.It is able to reach a thickness of a millimeter to several centimeters.The composition of the fiber includes a loose connective tissue is deposited in the first place on the abdomen, buttocks, thighs.Subcutaneous adipose tissue acts as protection against impact, the energy "depot" and termoprosloykoy.The thickness of the layer of fat is directly dependent on nutrition, age, sports load, the hormonal system, heredity.The fabric has a fiber nerve endings, as well as the roots of the hair.
So, we understand that the skin is one of the great human body organs to perform numerous and diverse functions.The appearance of the outer cover just said about the state of the whole organism.
But that signals a dry skin and what is dangerous, we'll try to understand.Dry skin or dry skin (xeroderma) is one of the signs of lack of moisture in the top layer - the epidermis.The epidermis accumulates a small amount of water (up to 20%).At the first sign of lack of moisture, the following occurs: the lower layers of the skin intensively evaporate water, and marked slowdown in the metabolic processes that lead to their tarnishing.
Dry skin is very common characteristic people of middle and old age.
Dry skin causes
in medicine are two types of dry skin.The first type is acquired dry skin.The second type is called conditionality constitution.Acquired becomes so dry by external factors.These factors are the ultraviolet rays, cold, heat, wind, low humidity.Often, excessive dryness of the skin acts as a result of therapeutic interventions or treatments exfoliating (peeling), or the method of rejuvenation (dermabrasion).Dryness of the skin is also likely using azelaic acid, retinoids and other drugs.
constitutional dry skin occurs physiologically or genetic characteristics.It often appears in children between two and six years.This occurs because of the physiological reducing sebum synthesis by the sebaceous glands.Constitutionally due dryness able to manifest itself in a number of skin disorders such as ichthyosis.
Dry skin of hands, back, legs, face often found in women with thin, snow-white skin.
Modern medicine distinguishes such a thing as senile xerosis, which refers to a clinical symptom of excessive dryness of the skin aging.Often, the skin become dry in the period before menopause, as well as during the actual menopause.
There is another classification of dry skin: a good tone and decreased tone.
good tone dry skin is characterized by a supple, smooth and matt surface.This happens when on the skin is not wrinkled, but the high sensitivity of the response to external stimuli.Therefore, the skin require regular, beauty care, since the lack of such will lead to the loss of tone.Often, such a feature peculiar to the people of a young age.
lowering the tone of dry skin is characterized by thinning.Very much it becomes noticeable around the mouth and eyes, because in these places there are first wrinkles and folds.Holders of lowering the tone of the skin is necessary to use modern techniques in her care to improve the condition.
Xeroderma legs and its causes are: the mechanical action resulting from wearing tight, uncomfortable shoes, which leads to compression and thickening of the stratum corneum followed by dryness.
Dry skin symptoms
How to dry skin on their own?When pressed on the skin with your fingers there are traces of dry skin.
The signs include dry skin peeling, flaking scales, itching, covered with red spots, the occurrence of discomfort, the appearance of rudeness and rigidities, lack of long tightness after water treatment, surface roughness, presence of deep cracks, rare bleeding cracks.
Water is vital skin.In the absence of sufficient moisture, the skin can not function normally.The level of moisture affects the appearance of the epidermis.Moisture is able to give elasticity and firmness.Moisture also provides the skin with all important nutrients.
Lack of proper hydration and thinners leads to dry skin.In addition, it is rapidly covered with wrinkles, becoming hypersensitive to external influence.Determine the degree of hydration of the skin can be two mechanisms of regulation.The first - the general condition of the stratum corneum;the second - the total amount of sebum.Horny cells, as well as sebum form the lipid layer that protects the skin layer against moisture loss.The function of the lipid layer and preventing infiltration of pathogenic microbes, allergens and toxins.Dry skin face inflammation and leads to premature aging.
There are a number of diseases associated with dry skin: hypothyroidism, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, diabetes, eczema, stress, kidney failure, allergic rhinitis, chronic intoxication, ichthyosis, hair keratosis, dystrophy, seborrhea (dandruff), Vitamin A deficiency, Sjogren's disease.
There are many other various causes of dry skin: bathing in hot water, physiological aging, frequent washing, seasonal changes, medication, change of climate, dehydration, inflammation, allergic reactions, sores, irritation, scratches, cuts, homedry air entrainment alkaline soap and cosmetics, to malfunction of the gastrointestinal tract.
Dry skin treatment
dry skin often appears after a couple of days after the holiday.The reason is staying a long time in the sun and climate change.To restore the skin need to moisten the air in the house.For this purpose, well help fresh flowers or water containers.Air exhibited at 85% humidity.
effective for skin moisturizing procedure for polyethylene.These procedures help to enhance perspiration and water absorption of integuments.Enough 3 procedures and dry skin back down.
Xeroderma hands, face, scalp and skin of all the treated bath with the starch, baking soda, salt, special ointments, which are based on urea or salicylic acid.After frequenting pools suffer from dry knees, elbows, forearms, so necessary after their visit to rinse the body with cool water.
During hormonal changes rapidly desiccate the skin.This is true for women after 45 years.Particularly problematic skin becomes feet and hands.In such cases, treatment is given complex.
During weight loss the skin exposed to the greatest dryness of the skin, as the body of water out of micro and macro elements and fill them does not happen (people deliberately restrict themselves in food and water), and this can not be done.Dehydration of skin results in increased desquamation.
How to treat the dry skin?It is important to drink every day up to two liters of water.Well replenish moisture low fat milk drinks, juices, but tea and coffee dehydrate the body even more.
This risk groups include people over 65 years old, lovers of hot baths, living in cold climates or with low humidity.
to dry skin can join complications: abscess, eczema, atopic dermatitis, folliculitis.If you find yourself at the incomprehensible signs (redness of individual sections, itching, insomnia, ulcers, peeling) should consult a dermatologist.
Dry skin in the treatment includes a special meal: rich in vitamins and minerals.Mostly this B vitamins for this should be included in the diet of eggs, fish, brown rice, green vegetables, dairy products, liver, nuts, brown bread and fruit.Vegetables and fruits activate collagen production, supply the body with vitamin C, and liver will act source of protein, dairy foods provide the body with amino acids.
Dry skin of the child
Most young mothers worried about dry skin of babies.This phenomenon is referred to as normal as after the birth of the sweat glands function poorly, and eventually all spontaneously adjusted.
If the child has dry skin persists for a long time, in this case can serve a number of reasons: frequent bathing, early feeding, hard water, violation diet mother, bowel disease, the early introduction of complementary foods, exposure to household cleaning products.
Dry skin of the child occurs rapidly due to rapid response to external causes.Harmless powder based on talcum able to dry skin baby.
Dry skin of the child is able to cause pain, redness, itching, peeling, cracking skin.
young mums recommended for the treatment of dry skin, apply a hypoallergenic moisturizing lotions and creams specifically designed for kids.If their inefficiency, please contact your pediatrician for help.
Dry skin during pregnancy
This is a major problem for all future mothers.During this period, there is an acute shortage of body fluids.This dehydration are often subjected to foot, upper limbs, the skin of the face.
How to remove dry skin?With the help of special equipment that will not harm the fetus.Do not use hydrocortisone or cortisone, because they will lead to further dehydration.Use simple tips: Wash your face foam for moisturizing, apply a moisturizing mask and vegetable oils in the bath, do not drink soda, mineral water, use a humidifier and scrub with fine particles, not get carried away baths.
This phenomenon is quite common, especially in winter.When an imbalance of the sebaceous glands to the skin of the head fall off the flakes with a yellowish tinge.
Dry scalp is treated diet.Include in your daily diet fatty acids.Eat avocados, fatty fish, discard the perfumed air conditioners and shampoos.Each shampooing end the apple cider vinegar rinse.Get a humidifier.Use the mask for the head: honey combined with olive oil.
Dry scalp in the presence of diseases such as psoriasis, alopecia, seborrheic dermatitis requires complex treatment specialists.
Dry skin of hands
This condition is caused by a number of factors.This includes the care of hands, overall health, living conditions, nutrition.It hands give the age of the person.To keep hands attractive follow the advice: after washing thoroughly dry hands, the final procedure of washing in cold water, do not leave never to the street with wet hands, while in the cold without gloves, use emollient hand cream, summer, put on your hands sunscreen homeworkpuncture the gloves, use a scrub for hands.In the evening, smeared hand cream, wear plastic gloves on them.
Use masks and packs of mashed potatoes;yolks and honey and oil;sour cream, egg yolks and lemon juice.After the mask, apply the cream on your hands to moisten.All these recommendations will help to keep your hands well-groomed and beautiful.
If you can not cope with dry skin, resort to the help of beauticians, as proper care to keep a youthful appearance and prevent early wrinkles.The person is better to wash melt water, or special lotions, milk can be diluted with water and herbal infusions.Use a face mask is obligatory after cleaning the skin.Good mask of oatmeal, dairy products, cereals and warm.