Itching is often regarded as one of the signs of skin disease.Because the itching usually does not threaten the patient's life, experts often do not pay enough attention to it.Still itchy skin is considered one of the most distressing symptoms.Sometimes even a slight itch can lead to sleep disorders to mental disorders, enormously disturbing the quality of life of the patient.It is also important to consider the itching all over the body, in the absence of the patient's skin lesions, because this situation could be grounds to find the cause of systemic disease.
In some moments itchy skin can be defined as the clinical picture of a skin disease, and so may be a distinct disease.
Due to such characteristics of pruritus, number of authors separated by a certain group of pruritic dermatoses, which may include in addition to itching dermatitis, scabies, at least - atopic dermatitis.Give specific scientific definition of itching is not always easy, and today it sounds, as always, somewhat
Self-poisoning that may be caused by a worsening of the disease biliary tract, resulting in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (primary cirrhosis, biliary, pancreatic cancer, cholestasis intrahepatic pregnant, giardiasis), or at long reception of certain medicinal drugs (contraceptivesoral, codeine).
autointoxication, which are due to chronic renal failure.As another factor worth mentioning pruritus disorders endocrine and metabolic disorders (hyperthyroidism, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, gout, menopause, hypovitaminosis A and B).
Itchy skin can be caused by malignant tumors and diseases of the circulatory system (glucagonoma, stomach cancer, pancreatic cancer, the disease multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, erythremia, leukemia, anemia, iron deficiency).It can also cause this disease and certain infectious diseases, particularly HIV infection.
Mental and neurological disorder (brain tumors, depression, multiple sclerosis, phobias), also cause, for example, the emergence of a clinical picture as psychogenic pruritus.
Itching can also act as a conditioned reflex reaction.For example, the development of conditioned reflex pruritus can serve mnemodermiya (from the Greek. Mneme - remember, memory) - itching, which occurs at the sight of a parasite (for example, lice), and even at the mention of it.Such itching or sometimes fails to impress, or to eliminate during the hypnosis session.
in certain people due to changes in barometric pressure, while climbing to a height of 10,000 meters or more may develop, as it is called, "high-rise" itching.
There are seasonal and senile pruritus.Senile pruritus occurs mainly in men in the age group over 60 years.It can occur in episodic form, often during sleep.The reasons for the senile pruritus can be represented as: atherosclerosis, endocrine disorders, dehydration.Seasonal itching can occur at a seasonal time of the year (fall, spring).
localized itching may occur more often in the anal area and genital area.Itching in the anus can be observed mainly in males.His reason: hemorrhoids, untidiness, proctitis, constipation, prostatitis, vesicles.The cause of itching in the anal area may be erythrasma, which is due to increased pigmentation of the skin around the anus not always manage to identify.Because when skin itching in the anal region should pay their attention to the condition of the skin in the area of the femoral-scrotal folds, which are affected in erythrasma.
Genital itching - mostly female suffering.Its causes include: bleach, pinworms, Trichomonas, skin irritation urine gout or diabetes, inflammation of the reproductive organs, menopause, sexual neuroses.Causes itching genitals in males are prostate, vesicles.
If there is itching during pregnancy, then there is need to consider it as a physiological phenomenon.The skin of a pregnant woman because of the growing fetus stretched.The same can be said when skin ulcers in the breast during pregnancy.
Besides itching during pregnancy can be caused by hormonal changes and dry skin, which is also a physiology.
Consider the example of itching skin and skin diseases.
When allergic contact dermatitis appears erythematous rash with clearly defined borders.Top inflamed areas located vesicles.The defeat of the skin appears a day after exposure to the allergen.Pruritus is localized in this case only in certain areas of the skin.
atopic dermatitis in infants localized itchy rash, often on the face, elbows and knees.In adults, its location on the folds of the wrist, elbow and knee joints.Itching is a characteristic of such areas after scratching.
When bullous pemphigoid, urticaria rash first presents with pruritus, and its location on the skin areas that are exposed to friction.After urticarial rash appeared tense bubbles.
T-cell lymphoma of the skin characterized by the oval ekzematizirovannymi plaques on the skin that are not exposed to sunlight.Also one of the variants of the disease is the appearance of erythroderma, which is also characterized by localized pruritus.
Dermatitis herpetiformis is considered a rare dermatitis with characteristic rash bubble, which is often localized to the skin of the lumbosacral region, the knees and forearms, and is also accompanied by severe itching.
folliculitis is characterized by an eruption of papules and pustules, which are located in those areas of the skin (ie, chest, hips and back), where there is the follicles.
Lichen planus is characterized by skin lesions on the flexion of the wrist.The main symptoms are itching, papules flat shades of purple, polygonal shapes that are covered with scales.
Pediculosis can also be determined by pruritus of the scalp at the nape.There may also be itching in the genital area.
Psoriasis is characterized by plaques, which are covered with scales.They can be located on the surface of the extensor limbs, hands, scalp, soles, which is also accompanied by an unpleasant pruritus.
Scabies is defined as pruritus (strong!) In the skin of the hands, underarms, genitals.Can be seen moves itch.The rash is usually bright presented plaques with hyperkeratotic features itchy papules, scales.Children can be affected skin on the face and head.
also itching may be characterized by certain phenomena in systemic diseases.
cholestasis appears intense itching on the hands and the skin areas that are exposed to pressure and friction (itching often worse at night).
Chronic renal failure is characterized by bouts of pronounced skin itch, especially in the summer.
Hodgkin's lymphoma is defined by generalized, severe itching, often in the absence of other obvious symptoms.
HIV infection as manifested by itching of the skin, which is associated with the occurrence of secondary diseases.For example, eczema, seborrhea, eosinophilic folliculitis.
When iron deficiency anemia glossitis and cheilitis also provoke pruritus.
When trichinosis is also intolerable itching skin, when the larvae are located under the skin.
polycythemia vera is also characterized by piercing pruritus, which may persist for some time after bathing.
Clinical total process pruritus seems to lack morphological primary elements.In different areas of skin found scratches linear, linear blood crusts.Patients in addition to complaints of pruritus suffer from sleep disorders and disorders of the nervous system.
localized itching often occurs in the anus and genital organs.It characterizes itself by itching and painful cracks often complicated painful, yeast and streptococcal diaper rash, boils and folliculitis, which are observed on the background of clear raschёsov and hemorrhagic crusts.
neurodermatitis as chronic dermatoses itchy, which is characterized by the emergence and development of lihenifikatsii papules due to constant scratching, and there is a strong itching.It begins with a pronounced itching the disease and later developed its manifestations throughout the skin.The disease is associated with impaired (functional) of the nervous system, which may join the organic changes in the nerve fibers and the receptor apparatus of the skin.It is also important functional gastrointestinal disorders, endocrine disorders.Neurodermatitis, as a rule, there is itching all over the body.
almost always accompanied by itching hives, itching, many forms of which can be associated with the mechanisms of allergic development.Violent itching may occur in the skin of chronic diseases such as lichen planus, dermatitis Dühring.
The cause of the itching papules may be mites or flea bites.Sometimes patients can not ignore the fact that their rashes and itching appeared after close contact with pets.
treatment of pruritus as a dermatosis, and not one of the symptoms of the disease, is a very difficult problem, because the success is first identifying, and later elimination of the causes of the disease, which requires painstaking preliminary survey.In the case of factor etiologic it can be fairly easy to eliminate itching, but unfortunately, this is not always possible, so in all other cases, as well as dermatoses which are accompanied by skin itching all over the body (or localized), shall be assigned to an individual symptomatic therapy.
total therapy may include the use of anxiolytics and sedatives, antihistamines.
Antihistamines are used in the field of therapy a long time.They are usually taken orally and used in parallel with the local facilities for the treatment of pruritus.But recently, the creation of new medicines and ointments from pruritus, healing qualities which are generally unique.Ointment for skin itch appears in our time as an antihistamine with antipruritic effect, which is applied topically (Suprastin, Tavegil, Fenistil, etc.)
With strong skin ulcers can be used to compress antipruritic agent solution (2% Salicylic Acid or tincturescarbolic, diphenhydramine or menthol, and three times divorced vinegar).
in the treatment of localized itching used antipruritics in the form of creams, powders, ointments or pastes, they are applied after carefully wiping the affected places such as the Miramistin disinfectants, chlorhexidine and others. Used Anestezin (5%), diphenhydramine (1-2%), and glucocorticoid ointment for external skin itch.In those cases where treatment is difficult, carried procaine respective nerve blockade.
also in the treatment of pruritus can be applied physiotherapy.Its mission is to provide antipruritic, tonic, detoxification, giposensibiliziruschee action, as well as normalize the CNS.Because of physiotherapy treatments may be given: electrosleep;radon, starch, sulfide, iodide-bromine baths;diadynamic in sympathetic cervical nodes;ultrasound to the area of the spine;calcium-bromo collar zone electrophoresis;UFO;Magnets and laser therapy.