Polydactyly - this anatomical anomaly, which is characterized by congenital change in the number of fingers on the foot or leg.This disease has a double origin.In the first case, the splitting of the fingers occurs along their germs, and the second - there are rudiments or atavism.Development
double nail phalanx skin appendages or small fingers are also considered as polydactyly.Very often, this birth defect is found in the form of six-toed on one leg.Additional finger basically located outside or inside edge of the foot or hand.Typically, these extra fingers completely undeveloped.
hereditary factor, as it turned out, one of the main causes of the defect.In some families, the family found a form of polydactyly, which is transmitted in an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, but may be present incomplete penetrance.This is when in a chromosomal gene mnogolaposti present or father, or mother, although they are completely healthy by their appearance.
If during pregnancy the fetus was the impact of any toxic substances (for example, the reception of certain drugs that are teratogenic, that is able to disrupt the formation of tissues and organs), the polydactyly may occur during fetal development, is to become innate.This action delays the toxins programmed death of cells of one species and the production of others.In this case, when polydactyly forming additional fingers.
In addition, the formation of adhesions polydactyly may influence inside the sheath that surrounds the fetus, which leads to abnormal development of the child.
Many complex chromosomal abnormalities (Patau syndrome), and genetic syndromes (Meckel, Lawrence et al.) Have all the signs of polydactyly.In medical practice, account for almost 120 syndromes that are accompanied by this disease.
At the moment, has not clarified the cause of the isolated polydactyly.Scientists geneticists suggest that the congenital anomaly is formed at 5-8 weeks of pregnancy, which is characterized by an increase in the number of cells of the mesoderm.
Polydactyly in children
immediately in the maternity hospital after the birth, the newborn is required to inspect a pediatrician.If your child was born with disabilities in the form of polydactyly, the doctor immediately without difficulty is able to diagnose.But in those cases where it is necessary to determine the place from which extends an extra finger or distinguish it from a makeweight in the skin, then used X-ray method of investigation.
Children polydactyly seen in the form of three types, which depend on the location of an additional finger.
This polydactyly as postaksialnaya, characterized in that a sixth finger is for the little finger, while preaxial polydactyly - in front of him.In the event that extra finger is well developed and connected to the fifth metacarpal bone, polydactyly is hereditary.When congenital disease, the child that finger undeveloped, is the outgrowth of the skin and has only one or two phalanges.
Another of the most common malformations in children is polydactyly of the foot.In this case, it is developing a pathology, which resulted in increasing the number of fingers, phalanges or metatarsals.If such defects are deformed bones, joints, tendons and ligaments, which are characteristic of the affected segments.Especially it progresses during the growth of the child, which could result in complication of its treatment and further rehabilitation.
defects of the foot as the anatomical and functional changes in a negative impact on the psyche of the child, and develop in him an inferiority complex, there is a need to wear orthopedic shoes and limiting themselves in physical development.
For the treatment of polydactyly is suitable only surgery.Mostly it is done solely in pursuit of the elimination of psychological reasons, and also because of the physical discomfort of the child.
In some cases, extra fingers or toes may indicate the presence of some other serious illnesses.Therefore, you may need additional examination of the child prior to the operation.
main objective of the surgeon is not the only defect removal but also to create aesthetic appearance of the hand or foot, and their proper operation.
surgical treatment, such as polydactyly of the foot, doctors insist to carry out at an early age.Because this time the child's foot has good ductility and its complications can not remodel.And very quickly restored the process of circulation and all the functions of the neuromuscular system.Therefore, surgeons recommend the removal of finger-rudiments immediately, in the first months of a child's life.
choosing certain tactics or method of operation, it is important to conduct further special studies.For all types of polydactyly remains mandatory radiographic examination, which allows you to determine the nature of the changes in the bones, various connection options "sixth" finger, or one of the main phalanxes of his finger.Of course, it is also necessary to investigate the peripheral circulation.
Before the special methods of investigation (renography, capillaroscopy, etc.) Used a conventional method which is overlaying the harness at the base of the finger receding.If you see a pale main finger, and it will not disappear quickly, then there is a certain risk of violating the circulation after the removal of finger extension.This means that between the primary and secondary fingers are common blood vessels.But if all this is taken into account in the surveys, the outcome of treatment of polydactyly is almost always favorable.
important that the surgery was done on time.And this, in turn, will allow the child to develop normally all the skills and develop motor skills.
The choice of surgical treatment of polydactyly is based on several points: congenital defects of the foot or hand, the age of the patient, as well as certain pathological changes in the fingers or metatarsal bones that accompany polydactyly.
complex forms transactions involve not only the removal of the additional segment, but also the reconstruction and restoring bones and joints and tendon-muscle apparatus metatarsals.
Kids these types of operations is preferably carried out up to a year, until there deformation secondary plan.And in the processes of change and rehabilitation are more suited to older children.
operations polydactyly of the foot divided into techniques such as removing the fingers in the central section, with the outer and inner edges.In the first embodiment, immature fingers are removed if they take the wrong anatomical position.
Polydactyly foot outer and inner edges exposed to surgical excision and removal of the second and the seventh rays on the foot when it has protruding edges and wedge-shaped cuboid bone more.
to conduct such operations do not require a special long-term training.It is usually administered immediately after all the surveys produced and handed over analyzes.For pre-treatment resorted to in very rare cases, solely on the testimony of the treating physician.By itself, the operation is not considered dangerous, but there are some difficulties.The older the patient, the more complicated and surgery and the postoperative period.But mostly favorable outcome of such manipulation.
In addition, all patients with polydactyly, which were made such surgery should be under medical observation doctors.This is especially true of children who continued development and growth of the organism.This medical examination should last until the end of the growth of the child.
All surgery is performed under polydactyly in specialized trauma hospitals with qualified doctors who have theoretical and practical knowledge in the field of surgery.