hypochromic anemia - is one of the common names for all forms of anemia, characterized by lack of hemoglobin, where the quantitative indicator of the color of blood is less than 0.8.Basically when hypochromic anemia violated formation of hemoglobin due to the reduction of red blood cells, even in small quantities.This is due to iron deficiency, inherited abnormalities in the formation of hemoglobin and chronic lead poisoning.
include hypochromic anemia isolated iron deficiency anemia, thalassemia, pathological changes in the synthesis of organic compounds (porphyrins) and anemia that occurs in some chronic diseases.
hypochromic anemia causes
Iron deficiency is a major and common cause of hypochromic anemia.About 10% of women who are of childbearing age suffer from iron deficiency anemia hypochromic, and 20% - have a latent form of iron deficiency.
Blood loss also refer to the causes of anemia.In one milliliter of blood contains about 0.45 mg of iron thus menstruating
In addition, the first signs of cancer of the rectum and colon is just a lack of iron in the body.Therefore, the presence of iron deficiency all patients after forty years are subject to mandatory inspection to determine the localization of the tumor.Sometimes there is some link between iron deficiency anemia hypochromic and Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and nonspecific etiology and reception, such as aspirin and prednisone.Besides these causes of anemia is a donation, nasal bleeding, hemorrhagic vasculitis, frequent blood tests for various types of research.
condition of iron deficiency anemia often occurs in pregnant women due to increased intake of iron, which is necessary for the development of the placenta and fetus.
hypochromic anemia often develops during puberty, when the body there is an insufficient number of iron, offset only the defective receipt.Nutritional factors considered to be a rare cause of iron deficiency anemia.In thalassemia occurs as a form of hypochromic anemia is decreased synthesis in beta polypeptide chains which are formed by two pairs of genes.
heterozygous form, having a genetic defect usually occurs without any clinical manifestations.But the same form in which pathological changes occur in the second and fourth gene is subjected to the development of microcytic hypochromic anemia with mild or moderate severity.In general, such patients are carriers of the disease.The development of severe anemia contributes to the homozygous form of the disease, in which the abnormality occurs in three of the four genes, damaging the chain beta thalassemia.Nearly 25% of this form of anemia falls on the black race.
hypochromic anemia symptoms
clinical picture of hypochromic anemia is characterized by fatigue, loss of appetite, inability to perform some physical exertion, dizziness.
for iron-deficiency anemia are also characterized by tissue sideropenia and well defined muscle weakness, which is due to reduced levels of enzymes that are in the muscles.As a result, nails become brittle and dry skin, hair fall and often appear angular cheilitis.In many patients, changing the taste, which is celebrated on the desire to eat toothpaste, clay, chalk.Tissue iron deficiency expressed in spoon-shaped nails, appears dysphagia, incontinence during coughing or laughing, disturbed secretion in the stomach.
When hypochromic anemia is a decrease in hemoglobin concentration of more than red blood cells, and therefore decreases the color indicator.Microcytosis often noted, but sometimes there anisocytosis and poikilocytosis.In the bone marrow show an increase in the percentage of cells in erythroblastic number with a certain delay in the maturation.This form of hypochromic anemia diagnosed without difficulty on the basis of clinical and hematological parameters.
Symptoms of anemia hypochromic in tumors manifest as anemia of unknown etiology.Patients often complain only of weakness, and some patients have a history of even the pronounced effect of treatment with iron supplements.Only X-ray and blood tests reveal a complete picture of the disease.But, unfortunately, sometimes the doctor settles with negative radiographic results, and therefore misses a tumor in its early stages.
Sometimes, when there is a strong erosive gastritis blood loss, which is not compensated by iron supplements.In addition, a hernia in the food hole diaphragm occurring without symptoms of pain and disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, but is characterized by all the signs of hypochromic iron deficiency anemia can worsen and become unbearable.In other cases, patients complain of crowded feeling of chest after eating, pain in the heart, like angina, vomiting.
But Crohn's disease should be a signal to moderate hypochromic anemia, which is characterized by inflammation of obscure, diarrhea and abdominal pain, fever, and loss of blood from the gastrointestinal tract.
chronic hypochromic anemia is detected when ankilostolidoze, which can last for a long time.At this point, characterized by epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.Also keeps away the blood from the intestine, so there is a loss, and iron, and protein, leading to hypoproteinemia.
hypochromic anemia in children
Children, like adults, have identified two main forms of hypochromic anemia - iron deficiency and is latent.For the latter form is characterized by isolated deficiency of iron in the tissues without anemia.This iron-deficiency anemia is very common among young children.The disease generally develops due to foregone iron in multiple pregnancies or prematurity, and if the child refuses to eat.
himself iron deficiency causes a number of disorders in the digestive tract that contribute to this problem.A huge role in this imbalance plays a child nutrition.Infants and young children behind many of their peers in language development, and psychomotor.But, starting with two - three years, children have for compensation, in which the amount of hemoglobin increases to normal, but the latent iron deficiency may be present.
conditions for the emergence of hypochromic anemia in children is puberty, especially in girls.This period is characterized by the need for increased amounts of iron as a result of menstruation and enhanced growth of the organism.It is often at this point join the lowered immunity and poor nutrition, which can be associated with weight loss.
not the last role played by hormones.For example, androgens help of erythropoiesis and actively utilize iron, but estrogens substantially not manifest itself.With an increase in iron-deficiency anemia is amplified lethargy, irritability and apathy.In children, patients complain of dizziness and frequent headaches that lead to memory impairment.Also tapped increased dyspnea and muffled heart sounds.Electrocardiographic changes observed all the signs of myocardial hypoxia and wall dystrophic.The limbs of the child is always cold to the touch.Many children with severe srednetyazhёloy and hypochromic anemia, an increase in liver and spleen, especially if there is a deficiency of vitamins and protein, as well as active rickets in infants.A reduction of gastric juice, disrupted absorption of minerals, vitamins and amino acids, and reduced immunity and nonspecific protection factors.
hypochromic anemia treatment
iron replacement therapy is considered to be a fundamental method in the treatment of patients with iron deficiency anemia.For this purpose, lactate, sulfate or iron carbonate.Most often prescribe iron sulfate - 300 mg three times a day.Very often for the treatment of hypochromic anemia and use drugs such as Ferropleks, Feromid, Ferrogradument, called combined.All
saline iron supplements greatly irritate the surface of the stomach and intestines, so almost five percent of patients have adverse reactions of the body such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.This discomfort is necessary to clean by reducing the dose, shorter treatment, and sometimes even canceling the drug, resulting in poor performance in the treatment.Some patients try to take foods that contain iron, but it still can not replace the iron supplements, especially cured hypochromic anemia.Therefore, the average iron therapy to achieve the desired result should be about six months.It is very important to make up for the missing amount of iron in the body, followed by its stock in it.
In some clinical indications administered intravenous iron supplements, and in severe hypochromic anemia used an infusion of packed red blood cells.But the most important thing in the treatment of this disease in the first place remains the elimination of the factors of its development.This applies to treatment of the underlying disease, which was the cause of this disease, and then assigned to the specific nature of the treatment.It always depends on the form of hypochromic anemia.
For the treatment of homozygous thalassemia hypochromic used transfusions of red blood cells from an early age.Mainly used thawed red blood cell types.First, a course of shock therapy that includes up to ten transfusions for two or three weeks, and achieve an increase in hemoglobin to 120-140 g / l.After this appointment infusions reduced.This therapy hypochromic anemia with transfusions, not only improves the overall condition of the patient, but also reduces the significant changes in the skeleton, the size of the spleen, reduces the incidence of infections in these children in severe forms, as well as improving their physical development.Such long treatment prolongs life in patients.But sometimes, after the application of this therapy, there are some complications in the form of pyrogenic reactions, increased hemolysis, and seizures.In addition, transfusion therapy may cause multiple organ hemosiderosis.Therefore, the treatment of this form of anemia necessarily prescribed Desferal.He promptly displays the body of excess iron.The dose of the destination of the drug depends on the patient's age and the number of red blood cells transfused.For children it is administered by intramuscular injection of 10 mg / kg, adolescents - 500 mg per day.Desferal also recommend the use of ascorbic acid at 200-500 mg, which enhances its effect.
In some cases, when palpated spleen, a significant increase in size, and to all the main symptoms of anemia, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia joins shown splenectomy.
Treatment of homozygous thalassemia etiology, as a form of hypochromic anemia, prevents serious remission, but significantly improves the lives of patients.In the treatment of heterozygous thalassemia is important to remember that all iron supplements is extremely contraindicated.Since this form of hypochromic anemia is always an excessive content of iron in the body.Therefore, in patients who are taking iron supplements, the state will be extremely deteriorated in contrast to those patients who will not receive them.And that as a result can cause severe decompensation and death of patients from various manifestations of hemosiderosis.