syndactyly - the development of vice, which is characterized by a seam between one or more fingers on the foot or hand to their functional impairment or lesions of certain cosmetic segment.Syndactyly occurs almost twice as often in boys than girls, and the average is 1: 10,000.
In medical practice, there are several options syndactyly, in which there is a division in the complete and incomplete fusion of the fingers;there is soft tissue or bone fusion;simple and complex shapes defeat phalanges.
Today the process of forming a fusion of fingers is not fully understood.Basically, it takes into account the hereditary factor and suggest that syndactyly is a form of mutation limbs.There are cases that syndactyly is inherited only through the male line, and women are not completely the bearers of the gene.It can be concluded that the mutant gene is localized in the Y-chromosome.
physiological characteristic of syndactyly 4-5 weeks of fetal development, when the c
mainly syndactyly refers to congenital pathologies, but in 20% of patients with complex forms, it is considered a genetic anomaly.A larger number of children with syndactyly have more and accompanying congenital pathology of the musculoskeletal system.In addition, there is the predominance of accretion of fingers on feet.This process may involve not only one arm or a leg, but also double the ratio of hand and foot.
Besides genetic causes of disease education limbs occurs exposure to toxic substances in the body of a pregnant woman in the form of drugs, alcohol and unfavorable ecological environment, as well as the hazards of the workplace.All this leads to various kinds of anomalies and syndactyly one of them.
Since the fusion of the fingers can be soft tissue and bone, then there are four kinds of syndactyly.This skin, membranous, bone and terminal form of syndactyly.But the fusion of the fingers along the length divided into a total, basal and terminal fusion.
Among all forms of syndactyly most frequently encountered cutaneous.It is characterized by a connection between the side surfaces of the fingers with a soft cloth.With this function abnormalities broken fingers.Therefore, to make a movement, it is necessary to make two fingers simultaneously.
syndactyly with membranous form is characterized by fusion of each other two or more fingers of a thin membrane, which extends in a distal direction and consists of a double layer of skin.In this type of pathology are possible individual finger movements, so the functionality of the hands and feet are affected slightly.Basically, patients concerned about cosmetic flaws.
to the most complex form of the disease include bone syndactyly.In this case, intergrowths may concern one phalanx, and the entire finger in general.Bone shape often runs parallel with other complex developmental defects of bones and soft tissues.When fusion takes place in the form of skin or bone forms the deformation fingers often develop secondary plan.
When connecting the fingers in the terminal phalanges manifests itself syndactyly end form.
support function at the foot syndactyly broken quite rare and requires surgical intervention only in cases that are accompanied by the restructuring of the fingers.But immediate surgery is necessary to at syndactyly fingers, as this disease disrupts the function of the hands and cause noticeable deformity.
treatment for congenital syndactyly is characteristic only of the operative method of treatment.It uses a combination of plastic skin, which uses dermotransplantaty and local fabrics, which makes it possible to replace the skin defect that occurs after separation fingers regardless of their form of fusion.
For the surgery important point is the indicator of age, and the condition of the wood fingers.
for simple forms of congenital pathology handling syndactyly begin at the age of one year.The process includes the operations zigzag cuts in the separation of the fingers, forming the interdigital folds that are in the hands of its own tissues.Some defects of the side surfaces of the fingers remove grafts taken from the thigh or upper arm.Then comes the postoperative period, wherein during the month limb is in a fixed position by a plaster of the tire.Two weeks later, appoint the replacement therapy, during which the patient attends massage, electrical stimulation of the fingers held on fonoforez scars and application of ozokerite.
treatment of complex forms of syndactyly recommend starting with the fifth month of the first year of life to prevent a progressive process and prevent the formation of secondary deformities.The basic principle of surgical treatment of congenital abnormalities with complex shapes is the adjustment of all components of disorders, including a one-time removal of adhesions and an absolute replacement of damaged surfaces on detached coupling fingers.
Complex syndactyly trehfalangovyh fingers defines four phases, which are characterized by the planning and cutting out the skin material to form the interdigital folds, disconnect congenital seam, remove the existing strain, and then replace the wound defects.In order to form a fold between the fingers, it is taken from the base of the inner and outer surfaces of the fingers is adherent to create a tongue-shaped flaps.To eliminate the remaining adhesions using zigzag or straight cuts.In the future, if necessary, eliminate congenital blockage metacarpals and phalanges sever the tendon affected fingers.
surgical interventions, which are conducted in the surgical treatment of complex shape syndactyly on I-II fingers corrects abnormalities in the arrangement of the I toe to ensure a two-way girth.
Thus, the timely conduct of the operation gives a positive result in 80% of cases of syndactyly completely get rid of.Only 20% of cases, has a negative effect on the function of the hands and feet.
postoperative period is one of the most important moments in reducing the patient's limb.For four months, the patient uses removable rails that hold the fingers in a straight position.As well as visiting the procedures physiotherapist, massage therapist, engaged in recreational physical therapy, mud therapy takes.