Vaginal - is the result of secretory activity of glandular structures, mostly located in the vagina.To a lesser extent, vaginal secretions involves formation overlying genital cancer.Physiological vaginal discharge present in all women and girls after the completion of puberty and postmenopausal their number is minimal.
in the mucosa lining the walls of the vestibule, and cervical cancer are arranged continuously producing a small amount of secretion for irrigation, cleansing and protection sheath.The presence of such secretions in the vagina and must not a pathology.The changing nature of the usual secretions is due to harmless reasons or signals of serious problems.
Physiological vaginal discharge is not too heavy, it does not cause inconvenience to the woman, and does not affect the status of the surrounding tissues.Vaginal discharge is considered normal if they meet several grounds:
- they are liquid or mucous, clear or slightly hazy, less frequently jelly;
- the amount of discharge does not exceed the normal rate at a particular woman;
- have expressed odor;
- do not cause irritation and inflammation of the surrounding mucous membranes, accompanied by itching, pain or discomfort.
can say that the "normal" amount and consistency of vaginal discharge primarily determines the woman, as the concept of "rules" may vary significantly.For some women, high or scant amount of vaginal discharge is normal, if the character does not change throughout life, and if they are not accompanied by pathological symptoms.
Exterior features selections are not always interpreted correctly by patients.Sometimes allocation change their form when exposed to air and leave marks on underwear "not their" color.If the discharge contact with the chemicals that are part of hygiene products, they can also change the appearance.During a pelvic exam the character of vaginal contents is estimated more reliably.
As a rule, the majority of healthy women daily amount of fluid in the vagina no more than 2 ml, and its composition is dominated by lactobacilli and squamous cells.The minimum amounts (about 2%) in the vagina are representatives of conditional - pathogenic microflora: gardnerelly, mycoplasma, anaerobic bacteria, staphylococcus, streptococcus and mushrooms.To undesirable microflora did not breed with the help of lactic acid bacteria in the vagina is kept constant acidic environment with pH 3,8 - 4,5.
The nature of vaginal content may affect:
- Natural cyclic hormonal fluctuations affect vaginal discharge, changing not only their number, but also consistency.On the eve of the amount of menstrual discharge from the vagina increases and it becomes more viscous.
- Pregnancy affects the composition and amount of vaginal discharge.Under the influence of estrogen is an increase in the volume of the mucous layer of the vagina and its content increases and liquefies.
- Sexual arousal triggers an increase in vaginal discharge.
- Stressful situations.
- A sharp change in climatic conditions.
- hormonal drugs.
- Allergic conditions of local or general.
- Violation of the rules of personal hygiene.
When vaginal discharge begin to differ from the usual ("normal") number, consistency, color or odor, if they are accompanied by unpleasant symptoms, they are considered abnormal, and changed its name to the "whites".
most popular reason for seeking a gynecologist are abundant and unpleasant vaginal discharge unusual species.Beli might have the most variety of colors (from white to red), consistency (gels, "cottage cheese" or foam) and be accompanied by discomfort and pain.In some cases, bleach are only symptom.
amount of bleeding is an important indicator in the diagnosis of diseases.Complaints of severe vaginal discharge do not correctly describe the nature of cables.There is no selection of "force", but only the number, so strong vaginal discharge in the formulation of the complaints correctly replaced by heavy vaginal discharge.
As a leading symptom of abnormal vaginal discharge is accompanied by a huge number of gynecological diseases, but most (60-70%), they appear in inflammatory diseases of the genitalia.
Diagnostics causes of cables often do not cause any difficulty, simple laboratory examination of quantitative and qualitative changes in the vaginal secretions ("smears on flora") helps to determine the source of disease.
therapy pathological vaginal discharge involves the elimination of the source of disease and restoration of normal vaginal environment indicators.
cause of vaginal discharge
When they say "vaginal discharge" meant abnormal discharge - whites, not the normal vaginal contents, because, as a rule, the usual vaginal discharge a woman notices.
At the heart of the pathological process in the vagina, which leads to the appearance of secretions (or cables) is a common trigger - changing the quantitative composition of microflora and acidity of the vaginal environment.The mucosa of the vagina is in a constant state of self-renewal by shedding the "old" and the growth of new cells.Lactobacilli interact with the surface cells of the vaginal epithelium, they cleave contained therein glycogen to lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide, in effect creating an acidic environment in the vagina.Unwanted organisms can not multiply in an acid medium, so it is the number of the vagina remains minimal.
vaginal epithelium is hormone-dependent, so the condition of the vaginal environment affect cyclical hormonal changes in the body: estrogen provide mucosal cells glycogen and progestins help surface layer of cells just torn away.Thus, a two-phase of ovulatory cycles helps to maintain the constancy of the vaginal environment.Dishormonal disturbances in the body can trigger abnormal vaginal discharge.
When the number of lactobacilli in the vagina decreases in their place come opportunistic microorganisms multiply intensively, they displace the remaining normal microflora, provoke local inflammation and whites.Modified defenseless vaginal mucosa is vulnerable to any disease-causing bacteria, including pathogens.In such circumstances, whites can accompany bacterial vaginosis, nonspecific vulvovaginitis etiologies, candidiasis, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, gonorrhea, and others.
But whites do not always mean that the disease is localized in the vagina.By place of origin are distinguished:
- Vaginal whites.There are others, and often accompanied by inflammation, infectious diseases and dysbiosis vagina.
- Pipe whites.Appear in the background of inflammation in the fallopian tubes.The walls of inflamed fallopian tube becomes swollen, their lumen is narrowed, the inflammatory secret accumulate in the pipe, and then portions poured into the uterus through the cervical canal and enters the vagina.If the contents of the tube enters the ovary, adnexitis symptoms.
- Uterine whites.It occurs predominantly in inflammatory processes in the endometrium.
- Cervical (cervical) whites are the result of increased secretion of the glands of the cervix for inflammation.
- Vestibular whites produced by glands vestibule.
Girls in 55% of cases, the appearance of cables is not associated with gynecological diseases and is caused by metabolic, allergic and endocrine disorders in the body.During puberty, the number of active vaginal discharge may increase, but they are physiological.Only 30% of teenage girls and vaginal discharge are pathological, and most of them have an infectious nature.
During the pre- and post-menopausal whites associated with atrophic processes in the mucosa or cancer.Sometimes the appearance of cables in elderly patients due to the omission of the genitals.
Beli on the background of foreign bodies in the vaginal cavity may be abundant, purulent and have an unpleasant odor.Too long stay in the vagina tampons, vaginal ring (pessary), as well as externally imposed foreign objects can cause cables.
Perhaps there is not a woman who would not be faced with changes in the nature of vaginal discharge, but not each of them required medical attention.The presence of precipitating factors does not always lead to the appearance of whiter.In healthy women with a good immune system and normal hormonal status of deviation of normal vaginal environment indicators are compensated by internal resources of the body.However, genital infections from even the healthiest patients require therapy.
White vaginal discharge
Appearance vaginal discharge can not reliably indicate the true cause of its occurrence.Physiological vaginal discharge sometimes have a whitish hue, but because of their small number of women may not know what they look like, and starts to pay attention to them only when their number is increasing against the background of natural causes: in the middle of the menstrual cycle,after stress or intimacy, and so on.Typically, in such cases, in addition to discharge the patient did not disturb any other subjective feelings, and after the test to establish the presence of a pathological process fails.
Pregnant women physiological selection before birth are whitish, abundant and thicker.Unlike the cables they are not accompanied by discomfort, and not require treatment.
Suspected pathological process is possible in the case if the patient complains of uncharacteristically dense and unpleasant vaginal discharge white against the backdrop of itching, burning or discomfort.Such isolation often point to excessive multiplication of fungal microflora, that is, the appearance of vaginal candidiasis.The source of the disease is the fungus Candida.In small quantities, they may be present in the vagina, but they inhibit the growth of lactobacilli.If the normal vaginal microflora composition is broken, mushrooms are beginning to vegetate, displacing beneficial microorganisms.
vaginal candidiasis accompanied by characteristic symptoms.Patients complain of a heavy and thick vaginal discharge white.Typical white inclusions in the form of crumbs or flakes give belyam candidiasis similarities with cheese or sour milk (hence the second name of the disease - "thrush").Selections are always accompanied by severe itching, which is amplified in the evening and often subsides overnight, not allowing a woman to relax.
On examination, vaginal mucosa is always pronounced signs of inflammation (swelling and redness) with typical white 'films. "Attempts to remove a plaque accompanied by severe traumatization of the mucosa and the appearance of blood.Copious irritate the inflamed mucosa of the vulva and vagina, causing a burning sensation.If the inflammation goes to the urethra, the patient may receive complaints related to disorders of urination.
Often, patients with vaginal candidiasis may clearly indicate the cause of the cables.The most common of these is the wrong antibiotics.
Vaginal candidiasis may have chronic form, then all the symptoms are mild and come first complaint cheesy white whites (sometimes even without itching).
diagnosis of vaginal candidiasis is usually straightforward.Have cheesy discharge characteristic signs of fungal inflammation of the vagina and the detection of Candida in smears allow you to quickly make the correct diagnosis.
defeat vaginal candidiasis therapy is the use of antifungal agents and the restoration of normal vaginal pH.Successful treatment does not guarantee candidiasis relapse.
Most cables are accompanied by the phenomena of inflammation of the vagina.Severe inflammation develops against the backdrop of the weakening of the vaginal mucosa to resist infection that is pathogenic microflora.Infectious process in the vagina can provoke "own" micro-organisms (the case when the conditional-pathogenic microbes caused disease) or were from outside pathogens (genital infection).
sign of infection in the genital organs puruloid are highlighted in yellow.Long-existing pus acquire a greenish tint.
profuse watery vaginal discharge yellow or yellow-green color may indicate trichomoniasis.The disease is caused by Trichomonas is sexually transmitted.Apart from patient cables concerned about pain, itching, burning and dysuria.Trichomonas hallmark of inflammation is kind of foam whiter and unpleasant stale smell.If the disease is not treated in time, it becomes chronic.
creamy pus characteristic of a serious sexually transmitted disease - gonorrhea.The disease occurs acutely symptomatic inflammation and fever.Inflammation in gonorrhea quickly rises to the overlying genitals, causing the symptoms of endometritis and adnexitis.If infection spreads to the fallopian tubes, they "stick together" due to accumulation of inflammatory fluid, so one of the dysfunctional consequences of gonorrhea is undergoing infertility.
not always indicate the presence of whites pathological process in the vagina.Inflammation of the uterus or appendages is also accompanied by abnormal discharge.Most often in acute endometritis abundant purulent vaginal discharge accompanied by strongly marked by fever and pain.
It should be noted that the yellowish tint may be whites of different origin.To establish the exact cause of their appearance, it is necessary to conduct laboratory study of the composition of the vaginal contents.A large number of white blood cells in the smear always points to the intense inflammation and identify the specific causative agent - the cause of the disease.
Brown vaginal discharge
Blood stains the vaginal discharge in all shades of red - from crimson to dark brown.The presence of a small amount of blood in the vaginal secretions can always be suspected by their characteristic color.Usually dark vaginal discharge brown color indicates the presence of power in the genital tract minor bleeding, when a small amount of blood to exit out time to oxidize and break down.
most frequent cause of brown discharge are menstrual irregularities.Typically, the patient marked smearing, varying in length dark vaginal discharge brown in any period between periods.Sometimes these release replaces the normal menstruation.
appearance of small brown spotting vaginal discharge is not always a sign of disease.For some women, they are observed in patients receiving hormonal contraceptives (especially low-dose) or an intrauterine device.As a rule, the emergence of such discharges is of short duration and not accompanied by any subjective discomfort.In the case smearing brown allocation is constantly worried woman, you should consult with a specialist.
Some women decide on their own methods of contraception and hormonal agent is chosen on the advice of friends or pharmacist.