inflammation of the women
inflammation of the women - is a united group of infectious and inflammatory diseases localized in the ovaries and / or uterus pipes.Inflammation of the women can wear one or two-way.
appendages and uterus have a close anatomical and physiological relationship, so the inflammation often develops at the same time and in the tubes (salpingitis), and in the ovaries (oophoritis adnexitis or).When an infectious-inflammatory process involved the uterus, the clinical picture of the disease is supplemented by signs of endometritis.
ovary - a female steam iron, it is located on either side of the uterus and is fixed to it, and the bones of the pelvic ligaments through.In appearance, the ovaries of adult women are like peach pits.The structure of isolated ovarian dense outer shell and disposed below the cortex.In the interior of the shell there are processes of maturation of oocytes.Until the moment of full maturity female germ cells located in the primordial follicles - a
ovaries perform the following important functions:
- reproduce able to fertilize an egg;
- properly control formation of female genital mutilation, that is responsible for external and internal "view of women";
- synthesized female hormones and provide a close relationship with other endocrine glands in the body.
can say that the ovaries' makes a woman a woman, "giving it the ability to reproduce offspring.
in the ovaries under the control of the pituitary gland are synthesized two important hormones - estrogen and progesterone (a hormone of the corpus luteum).
In a small number of ovaries is synthesized male sex hormones - androgens.For the production of androgens in the body correspond to the adrenal glands and the ovaries, they are produced in order to ensure the normal development of the male fetus during pregnancy.
size, shape, weight and internal content with the age of the ovaries of women.Full ovarian function begins at the end of a period of sexual development, and with the onset of menopause, she concludes.
Fallopian tubes - a paired organ, resembling a pipe handicap.They start at the upper corners of the uterus and are opened in the abdomen near the ovary.The main objective of the fallopian tubes - spend a fertilized egg from the ovaries to the uterus for further development of the pregnancy.
each fallopian tube wall consists of several layers, providing it strength and elasticity.
channel fallopian tube mucous forms numerous folds, and inside it is covered with ciliated epithelium cells, able to make undulations (flicker).
the muscular wall of the fallopian tube has the ability to do the wave in the direction of the uterine contractions.Due to movements of the ciliated epithelium and the contractions of the muscular wall, the fertilized egg along the tube is directed to the uterus.
Among the reasons for the development of inflammation in the uterine appendages present opportunistic microorganisms or representatives of a specific microflora (gonorrhea).Pathogenesis of inflammation in the ovaries and fallopian tubes is a common scenario, therefore, the clinical picture is similar symptoms.
The disease begins with acute inflammation.If delayed treatment or in the absence of inflammation of the uterus rather quickly becomes chronic.
Since pelvic organs have many blood vessels and well-innervated, acute inflammation of the women is always accompanied by clinical symptoms bright, while chronic infection is malosimptomno and reveals itself only in periods of exacerbation.
Diagnostics inflammation of the uterus, usually does not cause difficulties.The correct diagnosis the doctor can at the stage of studying the complaints and the subsequent gynecological examination, and laboratory and instrumental methods of examination to help determine the cause of the disease and to determine the exact localization process.
leading role in the treatment of infectious and inflammatory diseases of appendages of the women belong to antibiotics.Antibiotic therapy is selected individually depending on the nature of the infectious agent.
inflammation of the uterus following serious consequences:
- increases the risk of ectopic pregnancy in 5 - 10 times.
- After suffering a pronounced inflammation in the pelvic cavity can form adhesions.
- Inflammatory secret "glues" the fallopian tubes and prevents the passage of the egg in the uterus, develops tubal infertility.
- Inflammation damages the ovarian tissue as a result of the process is disrupted normal steroidogenesis and develop ovarian infertility.
- acute infectious inflammation can lead to suppurative complications requiring surgical intervention.
success of treatment of inflammation of the uterus in women depends not only on the skill of the doctor, but from when I was diagnosed.Complete cure of acute inflammation of the appendages is possible only if timely started therapy.Unfortunately, sometimes the patient to cope with the disease on their own, losing the ability to quickly eliminate acute infectious process.Conducted at home self-promotes chronic inflammation.
Causes inflammation of the women
In a healthy body, and the fallopian tubes, the ovaries are sterile and do not contain microorganisms.Inflammation develops appendages after being hit by an infectious agent upward (from the uterus and vagina) or descending (from upstream of) way.Inflammation of the appendages in women is caused by the following reasons:
- The specific microflora (gonorrhea).Inflammation of the appendages with gonorrhea occurs most acutely and leads to undesirable complications.
- pathogens (chlamydia, viruses and so on).Getting outside the body, they are almost always provoke inflammatory and infectious process.
- conditionally pathogenic microbes (staphylococci, streptococci, Corynebacterium, E. coli, etc.), which are always present in the body, but do not cause disease because of the small size and a healthy immune system.In the event of provoking situations, they begin to proliferate and cause disease.
In most cases, the perpetrators of inflammation of the women are microbial associations, consisting of representatives of different microbial groups.
To ranked in the tissue of the fallopian tubes and ovaries infection could trigger inflammation, you must be precipitating factors:
- Abortion, scraping the uterus and obstructed labor are accompanied by mechanical damage tissues of the external genitalia and uterine cavity, through which the infection penetrates into the underlying layers, causing inflammation.
- Genital infections, particularly gonorrhea.Gonorrhoea (gonorrhea) are extremely aggressive, they can damage the surface epithelium and penetrate into the deep tissue layers.Specific inflammation in a short time gets into the uterus through the cervix, and then rise to the tubes and ovaries.
- Inflammatory-infectious process in the uterus (endometritis).
- Intrauterine contraception.Uterine spiral sometimes causes local inflammation in the tissues of the uterus, which may subsequently join the infection, which then rises into the tubes and ovaries.In addition, the infection into the uterus may get together with the helix in the course of its administration.
- Hypothermia (especially during menstruation).
- Stress, fatigue, neuroses.
- Chronic infectious diseases in the acute stage.Infection from distant organs can get to the appendages hematogenous (through the blood) means.Such situation is possible in the presence of purulent pyelonephritis, otitis, appendicitis, tuberculosis, tonsillitis and other infectious diseases.
- hormonal dysfunction and endocrine diseases - diabetes and hypothyroidism.
- Physiological provoking factors include pregnancy and menstruation.
inflammation of the uterus will never appear in a patient with a well-functioning immune system.Each woman faces every day with a huge number of different microbes, but the disease appears only in some of them - those whose defenses are weakened.
significant negative role in the development of inflammation of the women play a violation of indicators of normal vaginal microflora, which is intended to protect the external genitalia of the negative microbial effects.The cells stratified squamous epithelium of the vaginal mucosa are constantly being updated, and the composition of the vaginal microflora of the mouth suppresses any unwanted bacteria.Normally, the vagina are lactobacillus (98%) and a small number of conditionally pathogenic flora, which can harm the body because of the small amount.Association of lactobacilli is formed on the surface of the vaginal mucosa protective film protecting the subject from infection layers.In addition, they synthesize lactic acid, keeping a constant level of pH (acidity) in which the pathogens can not propagate.
If you change the parameters of normal vaginal environment (reducing the number of changes in the level and laktobaktorey pH) located in the vagina pathogenic microflora begins to proliferate, causing inflammation.If you get into the vagina from the outside pathogenic microorganisms in the conditions of the local breed of dysbiosis as well.
Symptoms and signs of inflammation of the women
spectrum of clinical signs of inflammation of the women depends on several circumstances:
- forms of the disease.In acute, new-onset, inflammation of the clinical picture is more pronounced.Sometimes, acute inflammation of acquiring the features of a chronic process with frequent exacerbations, and inflammation of the women continued for many years without obvious clinical signs.
- Cause inflammation.Severity of clinical symptoms depends on the characteristics of the causative agent.The most striking clinical inflammation of the observed when the specific nature of the inflammation.For example, gonorrhea provoke vivid clinic disease, while chlamydia inflammation of the uterus may occur obliterated.
- Related gynecological pathology.The presence of other diseases of the uterus and appendages exacerbate infectious and inflammatory process, because in most cases they occur with severe hormonal or immune disorders.Sometimes the infection penetrates to the appendages of the existing inflammatory lesions in the cervix or uterus.
- Adverse extragenital background.Diseases of the endocrine, immune and hormonal systems contribute to exacerbate the infection and prevent healing.
- The presence of foci of chronic infection in the body neginekologicheskoy.When long-existing infections gradually weakens the immune system and bacteria can penetrate through hematogenous to the uterine appendages.
Isolated inflammation of the tubes or ovaries are rare because of their proximity to the anatomical location contributes to the equivalent of a pathological process.
inflammation of the uterus in women can be single- or double-sided.
pathological process usually begins in the lining of the uterine tubes.The infection is embedded in the wall of the pipe, causing local swelling and disorder of microcirculation.Pipe thickens and hard microbes multiply and begin to move toward the abdomen.At this point, the patient may receive pain.When the pipe is thicker, it dramatically narrows the lumen and the walls stick together.This inevitably leads to infertility, it suffers every fifth patient who had suffered from an inflammation of appendages.
In the next stage of inflammation occurs microbial "contamination" of tissue that encloses the tube, and peritoneum.Aggressive microbial flora can cause the formation of inflammatory fluid in the pelvic cavity.Gradually, it builds up and turns into a viscous secret tyazhisty (adhesions), which literally "glues" together the underlying tissues.Adhesions of varying severity is often accompanied by chronic inflammation of the women and explains the constant aching pain in the lower abdomen.
During ovulation occurs on the surface of the ovary, "wound" because of the bursting of the follicle, through it, the germs get into the ovarian tissue.If the ovarian tissue starts festering processes, forms a cavity filled with pus - tubo-ovarian education (purulent abscess), which is a very serious complication of purulent inflammation of the uterus.
ovarian surface epithelium has a strong immune defense against infectious aggression.In order for the infection got into the ovary requires serious structural or immune disorders.
All of inflammatory diseases of the uterus there is a common, often the very first clinical symptom - pain.The nature and location of the pain depends on the form of the disease.Intense pain in acute process begins on the affected side, and with the development of inflammation acquire widespread, diffuse character, resulting in acute inflammation of the appendages can be confused with other infectious processes abdomen (appendicitis, colitis, renal colic, and so on).Pain in acute inflammation combined with severe fever and chills.
Chronic inflammation of the appendages in women causes mild pain in the projection of inflammation.As a rule, moderate pain in patients with chronic inflammation of appendages associated with the adhesive process or aggravation.
common symptom of inflammation of the uterus are also abnormal discharge (leucorrhoea).Their number and appearance depend on the pathogen and the process.
Menstrual irregularities in inflammation of the appendages in women is associated with damage to the tissue of ovaries and hormonal dysfunction.The rest of the symptoms of inflammation of the appendages associated with concomitant gynecological diseases.
Chronic inflammation of the pregnancy is more likely to worsen and lead to serious consequences.It is recommended that all women with chronic inflammation in appendages plan pregnancy after adequate treatment.If inflammation of the pregnancy still provoked exacerbation of chronic process, the treatment is carried out taking into account the gestational age.Antibiotics are used without damaging the fruit.
combination of pregnancy and acute inflammation of the appendages is extremely dangerous.The causative agents of acute infection can be very aggressive, they are able to overcome the protective placental barrier and penetrate to the fetus, causing his infection or abortion.If the placenta fails to contain the infection, it can cause septic obstetric complications.
gynecological examination on one or both sides are revealed enlarged, sometimes very painful and limited mobility of the uterus.A significant number of cables required to puruloid detected only in acute inflammation.
Laboratory diagnosis helps determine the nature of inflammation and identify the source of infection.Significant changes in the blood (increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and white blood cell count) indicate an acute infectious process.