Thrush women - is a fungal infection of the external genitalia, which received its name from the characteristic vaginal discharge, like soured milk.Mostly thrush in women inflammation localized on the mucous of the vagina and / or vulva, but can also occur in the form of fungal dermatitis on the skin of the vestibule.
yeast infections in women can occur at any age, from newborn period and ending with the menopause.There is hardly a woman, not knowing about the existence of such a diagnosis, as thrush.At almost every second (45%) patients complained of vaginal discharge diagnosed fungal infection.
«culprits" yeast infection in women are the yeast fungi Candida.They are present in amounts harmless to the skin and mucous membranes of a healthy person and after the birth of the normal flora as long as the external or internal reasons, and does not cause them to multiply and cause excessive inflammation.
vaginal mucosa has an important task - to protect the genitals from unwanted
Lactobacilli have the ability to unite in microcolonies and fixed to the surface epithelial cells.Together with the products of their vital functions, they form on the surface of the mucous kind of protective biofilm - glycocalyx.Thus, pathogenic micro-organisms can not vegetate vagina due to lactic acid, and glycocalyx not allow them to penetrate into the interior of the vagina.
addition of lactobacilli in safe amounts in the vagina there are opportunistic microorganisms: Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, anaerobic bacteria, Gardnerella, Mycoplasma, etc.Among the representatives of conditionally pathogenic flora and fungi are Candida.They have the ability to form colonies and to associate with other pathogens.
If the vaginal environment changes its proper parameters, pathogenic microflora begins to proliferate and cause inflammation.The quantitative reduction of lactobacilli leads to changes in acidity, opportunistic bacteria are in more favorable conditions, and begin to proliferate, displacing the remaining normal microflora.As a result of developing inflammatory - infectious process.
But there is another scenario: the immune system healthy woman copes with temporary changes in the vaginal microenvironment constancy, and the disease does not develop.A single episode of vaginal dysbiosis experiencing almost 75% of women, but the yeast develops only half of them.In order that the body could not cope with a fungal infection itself requires deviation in the hormonal and immune systems, as well as unfavorable extragenital background.
Sometimes yeast can cause physiological reasons - pregnancy or menopause.So thrush in pregnant women, compared to non-pregnant, diagnosed three times more likely due to the hormonal fluctuations of physiological and structural adjustment of the vaginal mucosa.Similar reasons have thrush in breastfeeding women first months after birth.Reduction of lactobacilli in the vaginal mucosa in elderly patients due to the extinction of hormonal function and atrophic processes mucosa.
Thrush is not an exclusively female disease and can be diagnosed in the stronger sex.In men thrush is much rarer, but more often has serious reasons.
One of the most common causes of yeast infection regardless of age and sex of patients is antibiotics.
Since thrush sometimes simultaneously appear in both sexual partners, the possibility of sexual transmission of fungal infection is quite natural, but the presence of yeast infections in young children and not sexually active patients said about the independent nature of the disease.The case of sexual transmission of Candida infection is possible, but not required, as in sexually transmitted diseases.Such a situation is not natural, occur infrequently and involve the simultaneous treatment of both sexual partners.
The most common yeast infection in women occurs in the acute form and gives the patient a lot of pain.Timely initiated therapy eliminates symptoms of thrush in the short term, however, if the causes of fungal infections are not eliminated, along with its consequences, the disease may become chronic relapsing form.Long flowing chronic yeast infections in women less successful curable.
thrush Therapy should not be limited to symptomatic treatment.Any topical antifungals easily relieves the patient from the symptoms of yeast, but not always eliminate the true cause of vulvovaginal inflammation.
Causes of yeast infection in women
The basis of the appearance of thrush is the only reason - the excessive proliferation of Candida fungi in a dysfunction of the immune system.
favorable for the development of the disease may include the following very simple external or internal factors are more serious:
- Late hygiene genitals.Fungal populations exist not only in the vaginal mucosa, but also on the skin of ano-genital region.Simple water treatment is simply "washed" with the fungal flora of the skin, preventing its reproduction potential.Failure to observe proper hygiene care fungi can get into the vagina from the surrounding tissues.Very often such situations occur in childhood.
overzealous hygiene genitals, similar to its absence, can provoke the appearance of dysbiosis vagina.During the frequent douching and cleaning the surface of the vaginal mucosa it is eliminated not only undesirable, but also useful microflora, thus violated the normal ratio quantification of microorganisms in the vaginal environment.
- Injury vaginal epithelium of various origins.Any injury is accompanied by a violation of the integrity of the tissue, the damaged area of the mucous loses its protective properties and becomes vulnerable to infection.Vaginal mucosa can injure yourself during douching or introducing pessaries and gynecological reception during vaginal epithelium injured tools.
- The age factor.The composition of the normal flora in different periods of life is not the same.In newborn girl vagina is sterile and is controlled by hormones mother, accumulated in the child's body during pregnancy.Three weeks after birth the child's body completely eliminates maternal estrogen and begins the gradual formation of normal vaginal microflora, completes to 16 years old.In addition, the vaginal mucosa of children differs from that of adult women: it is more subtle, and local immunity generated is not enough.Thrush in children two - seven years, ranks second among all pediatric vulvovaginitis.
At puberty in girls body has a physiological hormonal dysfunction.Quantitative fluctuations of estrogen and anovulation affect the quantitative composition of the microflora vaginal, increasing the chance of the onset of symptoms of thrush.
in elderly patients due to the population growth of Candida natural causes: physiological decrease in the amount of estrogen and atrophic processes in the mucous membranes contribute to a sharp reduction in the number of lactobacilli.
- Inflammatory processes in the area of the vagina.Under the influence of inflammation of the mucous loses the ability to fight infections, become loose and easily accessible for the penetration of fungal flora.Particularly unfavorable in terms of developing thrush are sexual infections.
- Bacterial vaginosis.Against the backdrop of existing expressed dysbiosis vagina creates favorable conditions for the breeding and development of Candida yeast.Every fourth patient with bacterial vaginosis revealed signs of thrush.
- Irrational use of antibiotics, which reduce local immune system and prevents the development of normal microflora in the vagina.
- cytostatic therapy and hormonal drugs depressing all parts of the body's normal immune defenses.Hormonal contraceptives also provoke yeast infections in women.
- Allergic diseases and immunodeficiency.
- Diabetes.The accumulation of glucose in tissues contributes to change in the amount of lactic acid bacteria in the vagina.
- Intestinal dysbacteriosis and chronic pathology of the digestive tract.
Signs and symptoms of yeast infection in women
scenario of the disease is determined by the condition of the vaginal environment and the ability of the immune system to resist infection.
clinical picture of yeast infections in women is largely determined by the nature of the violations dysbiotic vagina.Usually thrush pathological process starts to develop in the surface layers of the vaginal epithelium, which together with other fungal populations are opportunistic pathogens.Reducing the number of lactoflora and changing the acidity of the vaginal environment lead to an increase not only the number of Candida, and other undesirable microorganisms.Sometimes mushrooms form therewith microbial association and jointly participate in the formation of an infectious process and, in some cases they can not compete.In 20% of the patients symptoms of thrush are combined with gardnerellezom and trichomoniasis.In the case of the so-called "true candidiasis" mushrooms have an absolute numerical advantage and play the role of a single pathogen infection.
degree of fungal flora also depends on how much decreased number of lactic acid bacteria.Sometimes, with moderate amounts of dysbacteriosis remaining lactoflora enough to deter further growth of the population of Candida and not allow it to penetrate into the deeper layers of the mucous membranes, but to completely destroy the source of infection it is not enough.Then the population of fungi is always in the vagina in a state of equilibrium with the quantitative lactobacilli.In the future, the situation may change in several ways:
- Episode dysbiosis vagina is eliminated by the body's internal resources, the proportion of lactobacilli and opportunistic microbes recovered.Recovery occurs.Such a scenario is possible in healthy women with a well-functioning immune system.
- The balance is maintained for a long time, forming kandidonositelstvo: quantitative increase in the presence of fungi in the vagina of lactobacilli retained a dominant role, and clinical manifestations of yeast infections in women are absent.The real reason kandidonositelstvo not installed.
- protective mechanisms of the mucous depleted, increasing the number of fungal populations periodically increase (worsening), and then decreases (in remission).Recurrent chronic yeast infections in women develops on the background of adverse gynecological history and chronic extragenital diseases.Usually it does not have a bright clinical picture.
Pronounced vaginal dysbacteriosis number of fungi in the vaginal epithelium is growing rapidly, they form a colony and to be embedded in layers, forming a kind of inflammatory foci.
In most cases, the first symptoms of yeast infection in women have a relationship with any provocative episode: taking antibiotics, stress, inflammation of the vagina, exacerbation of underlying disease, etc.In the case of chronic disease patients point to previous periods of exacerbation.
Because Candida are able to integrate into the microbial associations and with them participate in the development of inflammation, symptoms of yeast infection in women may vary widely.However, Thrush always has some specific symptoms:
- Itching in the area of the vagina and the vestibule (the vulva).Itching for thrush is amplified in the afternoon and continues to bother patients even at night.Its intensity increases when walking, intimacy and during hygiene measures after contact with water.Cyclic hormonal fluctuations trigger increased itching on the eve of the next menstruation.Often itchy fungal infection can be so strong that it causes severe neurological abnormalities in women.
- The majority of patients accompanied by itching burning sensation in the vagina associated with the response to the fungal inflammation of the mucous membrane.
Itching and burning in the genital area - these are the first symptoms of yeast infection in women in most cases.Even in the absence of visual signs of Candida infection in the vagina the presence of these symptoms indicate the need for laboratory examination.For thrush is characterized by increased symptoms of itching and / or burning on the eve of the next menstruation.
- Characteristic vaginal discharge.The number of vaginal secretion is dependent on many factors, but its appearance is always specific.Vaginal thrush thick, moderate or heavy, have a white or grayish-white in color and contain inclusions in the form of white lumps or flakes, giving them the form of cottage cheese or sour milk.Often they have a sour smell.Sometimes a woman can make mistakes in the assessment of the selection color, as dries on contact with the environment whites can leave yellowish marks on linen.
If the infectious-inflammatory process involved and other opportunistic pathogens, may change the character of discharge and yeast infection can be confused with any other infectious process in the vagina, especially if the symptoms are itching expressed slightly.In such situations, dealing with self-diagnosis patients take antibiotics on their own, dramatically worsening the condition.
In the acute form of inflammation fungal infection spreads to the region of the vulva and urethra (urethra) when the first signs of yeast infections in women supplemented dysuria and pain of varying intensity in the vulva.
often on the skin of the vulva when viewed from the outside can see small eruptions in the form of small bubbles.The rash is severe itching feeling, it makes women involuntarily combing the skin of the genitals, causing the development of local inflammation.
During a pelvic exam revealed hyperemia (redness) and swelling of the mucous membranes of the external genitalia.In the cavity of the vagina is a significant amount of thick secretions cheesy kind.Against the background of pronounced inflammation clearly visible areas of gray-white bloom of the vulva, the walls of the vagina and around the cervix.This particular plaque forming colonies of fungi, when "grow" in the vaginal epithelium.Candida attacks have dense structure and are difficult to be separated from the mucous layer.Typically, when mechanical removal occurs bleeding wound surface.
If within two months of the acute symptoms of thrush can not be eliminated, or they are not fully eliminated, the disease acquires the features of chronic recurrent fungal infection.
Chronic yeast infections in women has a long and persistent course.As a rule, women are concerned itching in the genital area of varying intensity, other symptoms are mild or may be missing altogether.