Pseudo cervical - is the result of bias endocervical cells beyond the external os.Pseudo cervix to gynecological diseases does not apply, it is diagnosed almost every second not having gynecological pathology patients and 40% of women under thirty years old, regardless of their health status.Congenital pseudo detected early in girls of reproductive age and adolescents who have no sexual experience.
The cervix is the lower segment of the uterus and in appearance resembles a hollow, short (3-4 cm) pipe connecting the uterus and vagina.When the gynecologist examines the cervix, he sees only her vaginal (lower) part.
inside the cervix is a narrow gap, and looks like a spindle.It is called the cervical canal or cervical canal.In a place where the cervix opens into the vagina, it forms a physiological narrowing - the outer mouth.Inside the shed is located between the cervical canal and the uterine cavity.
vaginal part of the cervix is covered by the same epithelium as the
All structural alterations in the epithelium of the cervix and the cervical canal are dependent on the age, presence of local infectious inflammation, the level of sex hormones and local immunity.
Pseudo cervix occurs when the bias ("sliding") columnar epithelium of the cervical canal beyond its normal location.At the columnar epithelium and transformation zone shifts.The resulting structural changes can be detected during an inspection or colposcopy study.
mechanisms of pseudo poorly understood, often to speak of predisposing and precipitating factors of its appearance.
Pseudo cervix does not have a subjective clinical symptoms, but they can appear in the case of accession of infectious and inflammatory complications.In this case, a patient complaint will correspond to the pathological process that joined the pseudo.
suspect the presence of structural changes in the cervix can be at the stage of primary gynecological examination.The surrounding area is visualized outer mouth portion unusual mucous appearance characterized by surface epithelium of the cervix.It helps clarify the diagnosis colposcopy study.Search Ends diagnostic cytologic conclusion.
Pseudo cervix without accompanying complications does not require treatment and is subject to annual dynamic control.
Do not put the pseudo identity between diagnoses and erosion.The prefix "pseudo" indicates a significant difference between the concepts of pseudo erosion.Obviously the term "erosion" as part of the name of the disease emerged because of its characteristic "inflammatory" appearance, and the prefix "pseudo" indicates that this impression is deceptive.Erosion involves a violation of the integrity of the normal epithelium of the cervix mechanical, chemical or inflammatory.As a rule, it exists not for long, and then heals, so infrequently detected.Pseudo cervix appears in the background of normal, intact epithelium or arises in the healing process of true erosion and can exist for many years.
Causes cervical pseudo
By origin distinguish:
- Congenital pseudo cervix.It is considered a physiological state, which was formed at the girl in utero as a result of incorrect separation of the epithelium of the cervix on a flat and cylindrical.In girls, puberty pseudo formed on the background of changes in the amount of estrogen in the body.The hallmark is the absence of pseudo congenital transformation zone.
- Acquisition of pseudo.It is formed under the influence of provoking factors exogenous and endogenous nature, can be complicated or uncomplicated.When colposcopy study is determined by a well-defined area of transformation.
appearance on the neck of the pseudo during pregnancy is considered to be a physiological state, since it is due to natural changes in the amount of estrogen and decrease of local immunity.
Formation acquired pseudo cervix occurs with the participation of provoking factors, such as:
- menstrual irregularities;
- a significant number of abortions or childbirth, leading to post-traumatic changes in the cervix;
- inflammation of the genitals;
- early sexual debut;
- barrier methods of contraception.
The formation of pseudo-cervix remains under study.In utero, the presence of the girls out of the columnar epithelium of the cervical canal is normal.At the end of puberty, under the influence of estrogens such a shift back into the cervical canal, and the transition zone becomes invisible when viewed.
Under the influence of adverse factors on the cervix around the external os formed defect stratified squamous epithelium - true erosion.He has a very short time (not more than two weeks), and then begins to close by the reserve of the vaginal epithelial cells.If the healing process of a true erosion begins at the expense of the columnar epithelium, crawling on the erosive surface of the cervix is formed pseudo.
Symptoms of cervical pseudo
presence of symptoms and their nature in the cervical pseudo-determined form of the disease and the presence of associated lesions on the cervix.The largest number of pseudo cervix are acquired, and more than 80% of them occur in a complicated form.
Actually pseudo cervix does not cause subjective sensations, since the cervix contains a large number of nerve endings.It may be on the surface of the cervix at birth and discovered by accident when you first visit a gynecologist.
Acquired pseudo cervix, congenital similar to the process may be asymptomatic as long as it will not join other pathological processes.
In most cases, cervical pseudo combined with inflammation of the external genitalia.In this situation, the patient complained of abundant mucous or mucopurulent leucorrhea, itching or discomfort in the vagina.If pseudo cervix has a hormonal origin, the reason for going to the doctor will be menstrual irregularities and / or infertility.
suspect the presence of pseudo-cervix possible during the initial gynecological examination.Around the external os (at least - next to him) is visualized delimited section of the cloth, different in appearance from the rest of the surface of the cervix.Typically, a pseudo form of irregularly shaped patches of pink or bright red.The shape and size of pseudo-plot may be different.Upon contact with the tools pseudo sections may bleed slightly, which explains the presence in some patients complaints contact spotting.On examination, can be detected inflammatory changes in the vagina - redness, swelling, the presence of cables and so on.
the most accurate information about the nature of the structural changes on the cervix provides a colposcopy, which allows for a large increase in detail the cervix.
Any pseudo - a portion of the cylindrical epithelium of the cervix and the transformation zone, where various structural changes.
terms cystic pseudo cervix and cervical glandular pseudo imply one process.The term pseudo glandular cervical indicates the presence of well-developed glandular strokes and cystic pseudo cervix implies the presence of cystic nodules in these passages.Sometimes both types of pseudo called follicular.
In some situations, the formation of pseudo accompanied by a simultaneous growth of the stroma and the columnar epithelium in the form of papillae, the process is referred to as papillary or papillary pseudo cervix.If there is a simultaneous growth of the glands and the formation of buds, the report may appear kolposkopista term pseudo glandular papillary or mixed cervical pseudo.Statistically glandular papillary pseudo cervix occurs more frequently than others.
In most cases combined with pseudo papillary inflammatory changes on the cervix.
When epidermiziruyuscheysya (healing) on the surface of pseudo islets are found stratified epithelium.
conclusions issued after the colposcopy, are very diverse, as often pseudo are mixed, and to refer to the same process can be used different terms.For patients, it is important to have an idea about the nature of changes in the cervix, and to understand in detail the conclusion must physician.Isolated form of pseudo-no fundamental practical significance for choosing a method of therapy.
at cytologic examination of scrapings from the surface of pseudo-columnar epithelium cells are found.
Treatment of cervical pseudo
If the patient is detected uncomplicated pseudo cervix, treatment is needed.It is necessary to carry out dynamic monitoring of the cervix.
Therapy pseudo shows in case of complicated forms.For successful treatment of pre-established character associated inflammation and presence of hormonal disorders.
To treat cervical pseudo-start only after the elimination of the unfavorable background.Held anti-inflammatory treatment restored microbiocenosis normal vaginal environment, the correction of immune and hormonal abnormalities.Treatment regimens are determined individually according to the survey.
As a rule, against a background of anti-inflammatory therapy may decrease the size of pseudo through the elimination of inflammatory changes.The treatment itself is pseudo liquidation (destruction) of a diseased area of the cervix.
The most common treatments are pseudo:
- Diathermocoagulation.The method is based on the "cauterization" pseudo-section with special electrodes.On the surface of the cervix forms a white crust (scab), under which begins the process restore the normal cervical epithelium.After 10 - 12 days, the scab is torn away, exposing a portion of mucosal healing.Complete healing requires about two months.The disadvantage of this method is the formation of a small scar.It does not matter for parous cervix, but if its presence is first childbirth can cause rupture of cervical tissue.
- Cryosurgery of the cervix.The method is based on the "freezing" pseudo zone via a liquid nitrogen oxide.The method has an important advantage - healing is without scar formation.
- Laser destruction.A more modern and expensive method based on the ability of the laser beam to evaporate and coagulate the unwanted cells.
All of these methods have their advantages and disadvantages, which are recorded when they are selected.However, ultimately, the treatment outcome pseudo cervix depends on the preparation of the doctor who can achieve recovery by any method.