Inflammation of the cervix
Inflammation of the cervix - a complex of pathological changes in the cervix inflammatory nature.The cause of inflammation of the cervix is an infection and clinical disease is determined by which microorganisms are involved in the pathological process. Acute inflammation of the cervix with purulent, copious belyami inherent to specific infections.The most common cause of acute purulent process is the causative agent of gonorrhea (gonorrhea), at least - trichomoniasis (Trichomonas).
non-specific inflammation of the cervix may be asymptomatic, and in the absence of adequate prompt diagnosis or treatment to transform into a chronic process.Indolent chronic inflammation of the cervix may show only small symptoms during an exacerbation.
cervix - the lower uterine segment is mostly located in the vagina and available for visual inspection.The value of the cervix to the reproductive system can not be overemphasized.It is an essential anatomical and functional barrier
Cervical canal connects the vaginal and uterine cavity.Appearance it resembles the spindle due to the large number of folds and has two anatomical narrowing that function as special protective flap between the vagina and the canal of the cervix (the outer mouth), and between the cavity of the uterus and cervical canal (internal os).Outside shed available to external examination, and inflammatory changes localized mainly around him.
in the submucosal layer of the cervical canal there is a well developed glandular tissue.The glands produce thick secretions (cervical mucus), it seals the cervical canal as a mucus plug that acts as protective barriers for germs on its way to the uterus.
Inflammation of the cervix can be isolated and localized only in the mucosa of the cervical canal (cervix).When the infection gets into the deeper layers of the cervix to be, an infectious-inflammatory process becomes total.
inflammation of the cervix associated with the condition of the vaginal flora and local immune disorders.The microorganisms that cause inflammation, always pre are on the vaginal mucosa.Thanks to its protective properties and wound infection does not penetrate into the cervical canal.
protective properties of the vaginal flora is determined by its contents.In the vagina healthy woman lives 98% of lactic acid bacteria and a small number of representatives of conditionally pathogenic microflora.Lactobacilli are involved in the synthesis of lactic acid, which provides a level of pH (3.8 - 4,5) vaginal contents.With the participation of lactobacilli on the surface of the vaginal mucosa forms a protective film that prevents germs to penetrate and reproduce.Due to the constancy of the quantitative composition of microflora and acidity vagina protects against infection.Violation of protective mechanisms vaginal epithelium leads to excessive proliferation of unwanted microbes that can penetrate into the cervical canal.
objectives diagnosis of inflammatory changes in the cervix are:
- Visual diagnostics of inflammation.Regular inspection allows you to see the unsatisfactory condition of cervical mucus.As a rule, around the external os visualized inflammatory "spot", its value depends on the extent of the disease.
- colposcopy.Detailed study of the instrumental nature of the structural changes in the cervical mucus helps to clarify the location and stage of inflammation.
- Laboratory confirmation of the cause.With smears and crops the content of the vagina and cervix identified pathogen.
- bacteriological confirmation of the sensitivity of infection to a specific antibiotic for the treatment of inflammation adequate.
inflammatory disease of the cervix respond well to antibiotic therapy after prior removal of the local background processes.
Causes inflammation of the cervix
Inflammation of the cervix can cause opportunistic microflora present in the vagina: Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Mycoplasma, E. coli and other microorganisms.Most often, inflammation provokes more than one pathogen and microbial association.
specific inflammatory process associated with a sexually transmitted infection pathogens, every fourth patient with trichomoniasis or gonorrhea is present marked cervical inflammation with signs of acute purulent process.
presence in the vaginal environment of germs does not mean that they enter into the cervical canal and provoke inflammation.This script requires two following conditions:
- dysbiotic state vaginal microenvironment.If under the influence of adverse factors is a reduction of the number of lactobacilli, unwanted microflora tends to take the vacant place, and change in pH of the vaginal environment helps it multiply.In the context of a large number of opportunistic germs defenses cervical depleted and allow infection to penetrate the cervical canal.
- Violation of the integrity of the epithelium (gaps, hairline cracks, etc.) of the cervix.Mucosal injury during the abortion, birth, diagnostic procedures are the most vulnerable places for infection control.Wrong, most - an independent, aggressive use of certain chemicals with curative intent can cause burns on the cervix and promote inflammation.Concentrated solutions of iodine, potassium permanganate, Dimexidum very dangerous for the delicate cervical mucus.
Thus, any circumstance that leads to disruption of the protective mechanisms of the vagina, or mechanical damage to the cervix are potential instigators of an infectious inflammation of the cervix.
The most common scenario is the development of disease upward path tissue infection of the cervix.But there is another, less common, method, when the infection goes down in the cervical canal of the uterine cavity.Inflammation of the uterus (endometritis) are often accompanied by similar processes in the cervix.
leading role in the development of inflammation of the cervix belongs to the immune system.If the immune defense mechanisms are intact, the body cope with the problem on their own and do not allow the disease to develop, it has a mild course and responds well to a simple treatment.In debilitated patients the infection is not adequately meets immune resistance, so a chronic inflammation of the cervix they develop more frequently.
Symptoms of inflammation of the cervix
Clinical signs of inflammation of the cervix depend on the type of infection that it provoked, as well as the place of its location.The pathological process can be limited to the mucosa of the cervical canal when the spread of infection disease becomes deeper features diffuse inflammation.
Inflammation is initially localized in the surface layer of the cervix.The mucous thickens and located therein gland begin to produce large amounts of secretions.Over time, the epithelium increases in volume due to the inflammatory swelling and becoming loose.If at this stage infectious inflammation of the cervical canal is not eliminated, the microbes to penetrate into the deeper layers, and on the mucosal surface begins the healing process (regeneration).As a result, the clinical manifestations of cervical inflammation subside, creating a false sense of "recovery" is thus formed chronic inflammation.
most reliable symptom of infectious inflammation of the cervix are abnormal vaginal discharge.Acute inflammation of the cervical canal provokes copious purulent (with specific inflammation) or serous-purulent leucorrhoea, they may be accompanied by discomfort in the vagina.In chronic course of bleach may be scarce or absent altogether, as is the case of chlamydial genital tract lesions.
acute purulent inflammation of the cervix during pregnancy poses a threat to the fetus, as a specific infection is very aggressive and can go up into the uterus.Non-specific inflammation of the cervix during pregnancy is also a threat, asappeared in the early stages, it can cause a violation of the fetus, and in later cause infectious complications in childbirth.
Inflammation of the cervix is the leader among the causes of "missed abortion".
Chronic inflammation of the cervix can cause infertility, as a long-term infection alters the properties of cervical mucus and prevents the sperm upward advancement.
Inflammatory changes on the cervix is well visualized by gynecological examination, they are characterized by:
- redness and thickening of the cervical mucous, it looks loose and heterogeneous;
- copious purulent or serous-purulent leucorrhea in acute inflammation, chronic inflammation in case they are scarce, unclear on the form;
- eroded areas or ulcers on the mucosa surrounding the outer mouth;
- petechial hemorrhages on the surface of the cervix;
- related inflammatory changes in the vagina (redness, swelling, abnormal deposits on the walls);
- Nabothian cysts formed due to improper healing of erosions and ulcers on the surface of the cervix.
There is no diagnostic difficulties expressed inflammation of the cervix specific origin.If trichomoniasis on the surface of the cervix is formed a plurality of point hemorrhages, and the cervix becomes like a strawberry.When herpetic lesions of the mucous cervix takes the form of a continuous erosion of the numerous small ulcers.
Colposcopy held in any form of the disease and allows you to establish the presence of the characteristic signs of inflammation of the cervix: an increase in size, swelling, small cysts.Often, the defining characteristic of a background process in the form of erosion, pseudo-erosion and so on.
Laboratory diagnosis is needed to identify the causative agent of the inflammation and involves screening for genital infections, bacteriological research and the study of the microbial composition of the contents of the vagina and cervix.
In some cases, the cause of inflammation of the cervix fails.Typically, this occurs when the body cope with the infection, leaving minor changes, which are found during the inspection.
Treating inflammation of the cervix
Self-treatment of inflammation of the cervix is unacceptable.Accompanying him vaginal discharge is not specific symptom of the disease because they can be a sign of the majority of genital diseases.Invalid choose medicine can eliminate symptoms of the disease, creating the false impression of recovery and trigger the development of a chronic process.
In the acute stage of inflammation used antibiotic therapy.Antibiotics are appointed according to the laboratory confinement.Acute inflammation of the cervix using a topical treatment unnecessarily.Deeply penetrated the infection can be cured only with systemic antibiotics (tablets), and antibacterial ointment or candles are able to eliminate only superficial changes.
When specific inflammation must be symmetrical treatment of sex partners.
After a course of antibiotics is necessary to restore the proper composition of the vaginal microflora, are used for this eubiotics - products containing lactic acid bacteria.Topical application of lactic acid in the form of suppositories or solutions helps to restore the desired level of acidity in the vagina.
Chronic inflammation poorly responsive to conservative therapy as the only treatment.It can eliminate the infection, but is not able to restore the structural integrity of the cervical mucus.Therefore, after the elimination of infection surgical treatment of existing ulcers, erosions and Nabothian cyst.The choice of treatment depends on the nature of the disease and the technical capabilities of the clinic.Apply cryotherapy, laser treatment, treatment, etc. electrosurgical
successful treatment of inflammation of the cervix involves the removal of the background processes and restore the proper local immunity.