inflammation of the vagina
inflammation of the vagina - a complex of pathological changes in the mucous lining of the vagina infectious and inflammatory nature.Inflammation is not always cover the entire vaginal surface, and can be localized only on the outside, in the vestibule, or just inside the vagina.Isolated on mucosal inflammation of the outside of the vagina usually occurs in older women and girls.
almost always inflammation of the vagina develops under the influence of the infection.By the nature of the pathogen, it can be specific (caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, mycoplasma, chlamydia) and non-specific, and the flow - acute, subacute or chronic.Specific provoke inflammation of the vagina also agents of sexually transmitted infections - gonorrhea and trichomonas.Ensuing inflammatory process is always different sharp, aggressive lesions of the vaginal mucosa and bright signs.
culprits nonspecific inflammation of the vagina origin are staphylococcus, streptococcus, E. coli and
pathological processes in an inflammation of the vagina often caused not by a single infectious agent, and microbial association.
The nature of the disease affect the local immunity.In violation of the immune mechanisms of protection develop chronic inflammation of the vagina, with alternating periods of remission and relapse.
vaginal walls are formed by three layers:
- muscle layer, providing flexibility and extensibility of the vaginal wall;
- connective layer, making the vaginal wall solid;
- epithelial layer overlying the function of protecting the genitals of infection and inflammation.
vaginal epithelial layer is formed by several layers of cells having a flat shape (stratified squamous epithelium).It has the unique property of cyclically updated: superficial layer of cells die off and are exfoliated, and in its place the formation of new cells functioning.Thanks samooobnovleniyu vaginal mucosa implement the functions of protection against germs, not allowing them to penetrate into the deeper layers.All structural changes in the vaginal epithelial layer occurs with the participation of sex hormones (estrogens) and controlled by the immune system.
in the epithelial layer of the vagina contains many small blood vessels (capillaries).Sometimes found the term inflammation of the glands of the vagina is not quite correct because the vaginal mucosa contains glands, and "vaginal discharge" formed by extravasation from capillaries, uterine and cervical secretion glands, the bacterial flora and desquamated epithelium.On the introduction of infection of the vagina is responsible increase in the number of content that is sometimes treated as an inflammation of the glands of the vagina instead of the inflammation of the mucous.
infectious aggression vaginal mucosa increased number of discharges is responsible, which is the leading, and sometimes the only symptom of the disease.
diagnosis of inflammatory processes in the vagina does not cause difficulties.A simple pelvic examination reveals signs of local inflammation, and these laboratory studies indicate its cause.
Treating inflammation of the vagina begin after the establishment of the cause.Infectious process eliminated with antibiotics followed by reduction of the normal composition of the vaginal microflora.
Causes inflammation of the vagina
Causes inflammation of the vagina in different age groups are mixed.In young children, more frequent inflammation of the vestibule of the primary character - a primary vulva.Usually, inflammation delimited area of the vaginal opening and does not extend to its cavity.
Primary inflammation of the vagina in girls can spread higher and cause inflammation of the walls of the vagina (vaginitis).This total is primarily a bacterial inflammation of the nature and develops in frail children.
in the waning hormonal ovarian function in older women in the vagina takes a physiological restructuring.The mucous thinner, changing the composition of the vaginal microflora, creating favorable conditions for inflammation.Older women often revealed inflammation of the vagina atrophic character.
an inflammation of the vagina during pregnancy is also due to physiological changes - reducing the amount of estrogen and the depletion of immune defense mechanisms.
To vagina developed infectious-inflammatory process, the presence of a source of infection in the mucous enough.Healthy vaginal mucosa protects genitals from the adverse effects due to the ability of the surface layer of mucous updated and features of the composition of the vaginal microflora.
vaginal microflora of healthy women of childbearing age is made up of lactic acid bacteria (98%) and a small number of opportunistic pathogens that because of its small size does not bring harm to the body.When the vaginal epithelium is exfoliated surface layer of cells lactobacilli "extracted" from their glycogen and convert it into lactic acid.It creates a constant level of pH (3,8 - 4,5) of the vagina, where the unfavorable microflora can not reproduce.In addition, to create lactobacillus vaginal surface protective film to prevent inflammation and infection of the vaginal walls overlying structures.As long as the number of lactobacilli remains constant, the risk of inflammation is minimal.
of infections in the vagina develops as the composition of the local flora and the deviation of the pH.The infection can be triggered:
- representatives of local pathogenic microflora.With a decrease in the proportion of lactobacilli in the vagina present undesirable microflora begins to proliferate, it acquires pathogenic properties and causes inflammation.
- pathogens, got on the outside of the vaginal mucosa.
Quantitative and qualitative variations in the composition of the vaginal environment are not uncommon.In most cases, these changes are compensated by the internal resources of the body, and the effects are inflammation.Inflammation becomes a disease only when the immune system is unable to correct the violation occurred.
By precipitating factors include inflammation of the vagina:
- Aggressive hygienic measures.Excessive douching leads to leaching of beneficial microflora.Also, an inflammation of the vaginal walls may occur in the case of mechanical trauma of mucous in douching.
- Improper hygiene products that contain irritating chemicals.
- Mechanical damage to the vaginal mucosa abortion or diagnostic procedures.
- promiscuity.The frequent change of partners not only increases the risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection, but also provokes a change in the composition of the vaginal microflora.
- System dysbiotic process, endocrine and hormonal disorders.
- Prolonged uncontrolled antibiotic.
infection in the vagina can penetrate not only the outside (ascending path).Sometimes it comes down to the vaginal epithelium of the upstream genitals.In such situations, an inflammation of the vaginal mucosa combined with inflammatory processes in the cervix (endocervicitis), uterus (endometritis) or falopievyh tubes (salpingitis).
symptoms of inflammation of the vagina
symptoms of inflammatory diseases of the vagina depends on their causes and nature of the disease.Typical complaints of patients are:
- Abnormal vaginal discharge - leukorrhea.Depending on the origin, they can be heavy or moderate, serous or purulent, have an admixture of blood or an abnormal inclusions.Acute inflammation is always accompanied by specific copious purulent discharge, and chronic inflammation of the vagina may show slight serous belyami.Copious white discharge resembling cottage cheese, appear in Candida infections, and yellow-green with a bleach smell of rotten fish inherent trichomoniasis.Inflammation of the mucous of the vagina is easily injured by contact, so the secretions may be present a small amount of blood.
- Itching and / or burning sensation in the vagina.Most often caused by fungal microflora.When candidiasis these sensations are intolerable and can cause the patient serious neurosis.Itching or burning sensation may be felt in the area of the vulva when abundant whites irritate the delicate tissues of the vestibule.
- dysuria.Inflammation of the vestibule can cause infection of the urethra, which often occurs when a particular process.
Older women leading complaints are dryness and itching in the tissues of the vulva, as well as discomfort.
gynecological examination revealed typical signs of inflammation: redness, swelling of the vaginal mucosa and whites.The more aggressive the infection, the more pronounced symptoms of the disease.On examination, sometimes found inflammatory changes in the cervix.
The cause inflammation of the vagina can be only after the laboratory examination including a smear, bacteriological examination (planting) material from the cervix, urethra and vagina, urine.The volume is determined by the attending physician surveys and opportunities of medical establishment, but any selected method of diagnosis should involve examination of the patient for the presence of major urogenital infections.
Treating inflammation of the vagina
therapy of inflammatory diseases of the vagina is aimed at eliminating the source of infection and the above indicators of vaginal microflora to the physiological norm.
The cure depends on the nature of the infectious agent.In the first stage of treatment, doctors prescribe only the antibacterial agent according to the laboratory conclusion which antibiotic is able to destroy the cause of the disease.The drug can be taken orally (tablets) or inserted into the vagina in the composition of assets of local therapy - vaginal suppositories, creams or solution for irrigation or irrigation.A significant advantage of local therapy is the possibility of the introduction of medication directly into the center of inflammation while minimizing the negative impact of antibiotics on the body.In most cases, inflammation of the vagina during pregnancy is treated with topical therapy.
parallel with antibiotics symptomatic therapy with analgesic, antipruritic, antihistamines.When expressed immune disorders appointed adjuvants.
Antibiotic therapy lasts about two weeks.If the control laboratory tests to confirm the removal of the source of infection, begins the second phase of treatment.Its aim is to restore the vaginal flora.Used eubiotics and probiotics containing Lactobacillus bifidus and.Vaginal candles Femileks with lactic acid, or their analogs can increase the population of lactic acid bacteria.
Traditional medicine in the treatment of inflammation of the vagina is of secondary importance, since it is not a substitute for antibiotics, but is able to eliminate the effects of itching, reduce symptoms of local inflammation and accelerate healing processes.For this purpose, use the bath and douching with herbs.Choosing the right traditional medicines help make the doctor.
Self inflammatory diseases of the vagina can lead to a chronic process.Randomly selected antibiotics can eliminate the symptoms of inflammation, but not its cause, and the disease will certainly come back in the form of an exacerbation of a chronic process.
If you have specific inflammation treatment of sexual partner is necessary.
tablets and suppositories from inflammation of the vagina
large number of antibacterial drugs for the treatment of inflammation of the vagina is associated with an equally large number of its causes.Without prior examination and laboratory examination is not easy to choose the right medicine.
Regardless of the name, the active ingredient in the instructions must match the goals of treatment - to destroy specific infections.
Since a large number of inflammatory diseases of the vagina caused by microbial associations, to achieve the maximum therapeutic effect of drugs of different groups combine or alternate.
To eliminate bacterial infections are successfully used Metronidazole and its derivatives, Fluomizin, Ofori.Topical therapy involves the use of candles and gels (Clindamycin, Hexicon etc.).Complex cases require joint local and systemic treatment, in other cases limited to local therapy.
vulvovaginal inflammation is treated with antibiotics antifungal action.It can be a tablet (nystatin, fluconazole) or topical administration preparations - suppositories, ointments and creams (clotrimazole, Pimafutsin Candida).